The newly extended Poster Session will be held after the presentations on the first day of the conference from 5:00 pm to 6:30 pm, during the American Coatings Conference Networking Reception. Posters will be on display on the show floor and poster contributors will be available to discuss their results with interested attendees. A designated student section will cover current academic research. The following is a list of accepted and confirmed posters to date:
Pigment Dispersion in Powder Coatings via Ultrasonic Twin Screw Extrusion
Robert Bouscher, University of Akron, USA
Powder coatings are often extruded in a twin screw extruder (TSE) to achieve mixing and dispersion of pigments, fillers, and additives. Residence time is minimized to ensure little to no crosslinking takes place during extrusion; however, a low residence time can result in insufficient pigment deagglomeration. This study seeks to increase pigment dispersion in powder coatings through the use of an ultrasonic twin screw extruder (UTSE). Processing conditions of the UTSE are varied for several polyester formulations, and their respective degree of dispersion is analyzed by colorimetry and optical microscopy. Coatings tests are also preformed to ensure their properties are not negatively affected.
Coating of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposites on Osmosis Membranes for Water Desalination
Shanju Zhang, California Polytechnic State University, USA
The use of nanotechnology to re-design osmosis membranes for water desalination is an emerging technology with reduced energy consumption. In particular, single-walled carbon nanotubes show promise because of super-high flow rate of water inside nanotubes. This potential is, however, severely limited by the current inability to achieve large-scale ordered nanotube based membranes. Here we report on coating of ordered nanotube-polymer nanocomposites on osmosis membranes for desalination. The surfactant monomers with various alkyl chains of nonpolar tails form ordered mesophases in which nanotubes are incorporated. The mixture of monomers and nanotubes is deposited on osmosis membranes using a doctor blade coating approach. After photopolymerization, ordered nanostructures are retained in the resulting nanocomposites. Desalination performance in terms of ion rejection, chemical separation, and water conductivity are evaluated.
UV-Cured Organic-Inorganic Hybrid metal pretreatments for corrosion resistance
Lin Luo, Eastern Michigan University, USA
Effect of Polymer Design and Coating Formulation on the Water Uptake and Sensitivity of Acrylic Water-Borne Films
William Thompson, California Polytechnic State University, USA
Water-borne latex coatings represent a safer, more user-friendly, and environmentally responsible alternative to solvent-borne coatings, and are growing in popularity each year. However, these coatings often exhibit unfavorable performance when in moisture rich environments, or in contact with water for extended periods of time. This prolonged exposure often results in water uptake, which may give rise to other detrimental effects such as a decrease in modulus, blushing, reduced serviceable life, and softening of the film. In this study, synthetic and formulation factors controlling water uptake were investigated. In quantifying the total water uptake of the films, gravimetric analysis tends to be the preferred method employed in the coatings industry. However, other analytical approaches may be used to better understand the effect that water has on the properties of the film. These methods include differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, immersion testing using dynamic mechanical analysis, and others.
An advanced acrylic engineered for gloss/semi-gloss deep bases
Ivan Tyre, Alberdingk Boley, USA
Commercially available low to “zero” VOC water-based gloss paints have been attainable for some years. Few, however, exhibit desired application properties of long open/workability times, excellent flow and leveling with performance attributes such as stain and chemical resistance, adhesion to multiple substrate types, burnish resistance and hand fat / lanolin resistance and increased hardness development. Utilizing a multiple faceted approach of multiphase, low surfactant stabilization and self-crosslinking technologies, we have developed the next generation acrylic to address the current deficiencies faced by formulators in a binder designed specifically for “zero” VOC coatings with the added feature of exceptional block resistance in deep tint-base formulations.
Amphiphilic Siloxane-Polyurethane Fouling-Release Coatings: Effect of Pre-polymer Composition and Surface Modifying Amphiphilic Additive Incorporation
Jackson Benda, North Dakota State University, USA
To investigate how marine foulants respond to changes in surface amphiphilicity of amphiphilic siloxane-polyurethane (SiPU) fouling-release (FR) coatings, the amount of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was varied in the polyisocyanate prepolymer composition. In addition, previously studied surface modifying amphiphilic additives (SMAAs) consisting of both PEG and PDMS were also included at varying weight percentages to investigate whether they could further improve performance of these amphiphilic SiPU coatings. Isocyanate titrations and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to observe the change in PEG:PDMS ratio in the prepolymers. After films were formed, techniques such as ATR-FTIR, dynamic water/methylene iodide contact angle, and AFM were used to study surface characteristics. Lastly, laboratory biological assays were performed with C. lytica and N. incerta (marine bacterium and diatoms), G. demissa and A. amphitrite (mussels and barnacles), and the marine macroalgae U. linza to determine AF/FR properties of the coatings.
Evaluation of VOC Control Technologies: A Sustainable Response to the 2015 NAAQS Ozone Standard
William Rosenzweig, Benjamin Moore, USA
In response to EPA lowering the NAAQS for ozone in 2015, and its economic impact to the paint and coatings industry, this paper will evaluate VOC control technologies to optimize manufacturing cost of compliance with the new standard (capital expenditure, operating cost, and operational flexibility).The 2015 ozone standard is forcing a significant number of states that are currently in attainment to non-attainment status, triggering a requirement to revise their SIP and adopt even stricter VOC emission regulations. The new standard will make it difficult to grow or innovate without incurring capital spending (emission control technology) and operating cost increases (permitting).
In effort to identify an economically viable, sustainable compliance solution to the new standard (standardizing the manufacturing process across geographies to meet all current and foreseeable standards), this paper will evaluate the following VOC Control Technologies:
Direct Fired Thermal Oxidizers
Catalytic Oxidizer Technology
Recuperative Thermal Oxidizers
Regenerative Thermal Oxidizers
Reactive Plasticizers for UV-Curable Polyester Powder Coatings
Ted Hammer, University of Akron, USA
High curing temperatures are a significant drawback with thermoset powder coatings. Radiation curing is an attractive alternative because heat-sensitive substrates can be coated at, or below, 100 °C. In an effort to further reduce these temperatures, we explored the use of crystalline small molecules that could facilitate the film formation and curing processes. Three structurally distinct urethane methacrylates were prepared and the effect that these compounds had on formulation viscosity was investigated. After the samples were UV-cured, the thermo-mechanical properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile tests. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also used to evaluate structural heterogeneity and the viscoelastic properties of the films, as a function of temperature. The type and amount (weight %) of urethane methacrylate that was used directly influenced network formation, glass transition temperature (Tg), modulus, % elongation at break, and crosslink density.
SyNovel Low VOC, Low Viscosity Epoxy Enabling High Solids Systems, Productivity, and Formulation Flexibility – 2- & 3-Year Field Trial Results
Marie-Josée Déry-Chauvette, Olin, USA
With increased demand to reduce emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), the chemical and petrochemical industries are considering alternative solutions to the incumbent solvent-borne Epoxy Resins used as primers and mid coats. In 2015, a novel family of Low Viscosity, Low VOC Epoxies were introduced as an alternative to incumbent High Solids, as these typically have undesired characteristics including high viscosity, poor sprayability, and reduced corrosion resistance. In 2017, a field study demonstrated the ability to reduce VOC content, provide excellent performance, and increase productivity for asset owners and contractors. During the trial, three systems were tested with the goal to confirm the new Epoxy Resin is robust enough to enable thin film, high build, and application efficiencies while performing in a three-layer zinc-rich barrier system and a two-layer barrier system. Sharing the two- and three-year results of this field trial with emphasis on performance results of the three systems.
New Technology for Improving Milling Processes While Saving Money
David Tomlinson, NETZSCH, United Kingdom
Automotive interior coatings for flexible and rigid substrate represent an important segment within automotive coating space. These coatings are used to protect plastic substrates from mechanical and chemical damage, besides providing color and aesthetics. Coatings undergo a lot of mechanical and chemical abuse from surrounding environment during their long service life. These coatings are expected to resist aggressive chemicals, fluids, and stains while maintaining their long-term physical appearance and mechanical integrity. Designing such coatings poses significant challenges to formulators in effectively balancing these properties.
Among many factors affecting these properties, the cross-link density (XLD) of these coatings is the most predominant factor. In general, the higher the XLD, meaning more the number of cross-links between the polymeric chain per unit volume, the lower will be its permeability to the diffusion of solvents and chemicals at a given film thickness. XLD also affects various mechanical properties like flexibility, hardness, toughness etc., and hence coatings with optimum XLD are desirable. Coating formulators often use time-consuming trial and error studies to determine formulation with optimum XLD. We have formulated a range of 2K-polyurethane automotive clear coats with varying XLDs, applied onto the widely used automotive plastic substrate at varying dry-film thickness (DFT). The XLD of these coatings has been determined by using Equilibrium Swelling technique using various solvents. These coatings have been tested for chemical, physical and mechanical properties as per standard test protocols. Analysis of the results has provided useful insight into the effect of XLD on various coating properties. Using these results we have developed a model to predict the effect of XLD on various coating properties as a function of their DFTs. This model is very useful for both formulators (Optimization of XLD) as well as the coating applicators (optimization of DFT). Besides, the scope of this model can be extended to estimate the solubility parameter of the different solvents and fluids. Application of this model in solving a real-world industry problem has been successfully demonstrated.
Synthesis of Novel Bio-Based Self Crosslinking Resin
Raul Setien, North Dakota State University, USA
In the past few years, there has been a rising demand for the utilization of bio-based compounds in coatings for real world applications. This project focused in taking bio-based starting materials such as epoxidized sucrose soyate and epoxidized soybean oil in order to synthesize starting materials with both acrylate and acetoacetate functionalities. This gives the starting material the potential to crosslink via the Michael reaction under the presence of a catalyst with the added advantage of not needing additional crosslinker. These self-crosslinking materials can potentially be used for many thermoset and coatings applications. This project aimed to explore the coatings properties of coatings made using acetoacetylated acrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate with the incorporation of acetoacetylated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil as a reactive diluent.
Sustainable Polyurethane Multi-Substrate Adhesive Solutions
Wolfgang Geuking, Croda, USA
Sustainability is becoming not only a market demand but may in future even become a license to use. The presentation will cover two aspects of sustainability in the field of adhesives, viz. sustainability in making them and its impact on the environment during its use. We will show that making adhesives from renewable resources reduces the impact on their carbon footprint, demonstrated by life cycle analysis. We will also demonstrate how such adhesives enhance longevity of bonded articles, reducing the frequency to replace them. This longevity is brought about by maintaining an initial bond strength over a longer period of time. Furthermore, the adhesives can also enhance barrier properties, thus prolonging their lifetime. Another aspect is the insulating properties of sealants, which saves energy. Performance data obtained from a range of polyurethane adhesives will corroberate afore mentioned ideas, whereby the renewable polyol used in them contribute to the performance enhancements.
Automatic non-destructive measurement of panels for corrosion testing
Ralph Woerheide, Orontec, Germany
The evaluation of test panels from corrosion testing is still a manual process with a lot of variances. In many cases, these panels are still scraped manually, and the width of the corrosion/delamination is measured by hand as well. We have developed a device, which can measure the delamination of standard corrosion panels automatically, without the necessity of scraping them. This is done by a photothermal sensor, which makes it possible to measure precisely and touchlessly. In addition, the panel handling is automatized, which includes the storage of the panel in the system, reading of QR-Codes for identifying the panels as well as a laboratory process software, which is used for sample preparation and evaluation.In addition, the non-destructive character of the measurements allows a re-use of samples.
Achieving Excellent Multi-Substrate Adhesion for Architectural Coatings
Kaliappa Ragunathan, BASF, USA
Substantial differences across substrate surface properties make it very difficult for architectural coatings to achieve superior multi-substrate adhesion. This challenge is further complicated by the need to balance adhesion with other important coating properties. Our latest developments on emulsion polymers achieve this challenging goal, delivering a solution that improves the resilience of low-VOC coatings. We investigated the role that different polymer design factors have on adhesion to identify a solution that will successfully adhere to chalked paint, fresh wood, aluminum, galvanized steel, smooth steel, and alkyd paint. This paper explores the impact that hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance, molecular weight, particle morphology, and glass transition temperature of aqueous polymer particle dispersion has on multi-substrate adhesion. It also covers specific examples of flat and semi-gloss formulated coatings achieving superior multi-substrate adhesion, while simultaneously delivering overall excellent performance in other key attributes such as dirt pick-up resistance, surfactant leaching, stain resistance and flexibility, among others..