Conference Program

 

Daily Schedule

To view the schedule of over 90 program presentations – including abstracts – choose a day below and scroll down to see the corresponding sessions.

April 9, 2018
2:00 -5:30 PM
*Session 1 ending at 6:00PM

April 10, 2018
9:00 AM – 12:30 PM

April 10, 2018
2:00 – 5:30 PM

April 11, 2018
9:30 AM – 1:00 PM

April 9, 2018
Monday Afternoon Schedule
(view Pre-conference Tutorials)

Session 1: Science Today - Coatings Tomorrow

Chair: Prakash Balan
National Science Foundation

1.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Synergistic or Antagonistic Effects of Polymer/Surfacant Supramolecular Assembly on the Colloidal Depletion Force

Robert Tilton
Carnegie-Mellon University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] When microscopic "colloidal" particles are suspended in a solution containing polymers, the polymers tend to be excluded from the gaps between particles. This exclusion gives rise to a force called the depletion force, which can draw particles together to form aggregates. Some industrial processes take advantage of the depletion force by promoting aggregation of contaminant particles to remove them from solution. However, the depletion force may be undesirable in other processes where ingredients must remain in solution, such as paint pigment particles or active agents in pharmaceuticals. Such liquid products must be formulated to prevent depletion-induced aggregation. When ionic surfactants are also present in the polymer solution, they can bind to the polymers and alter the depletion force in ways that are not completely understood. This research will examine various kinds of polymer/surfactant mixtures to better understand how polymer-surfactant binding influences the depletion force and the stability of the suspension. A colloidal probe atomic force microscope is used to measure the depletion force in the polymer/surfactant mixtures. The results of the work will be useful to engineers who manufacture and process colloidal fluids, including paints, coatings, topical medications, and personal care products.[/read]

1.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Ultrapure Lignins Recovered from Paper-Mill Black Liquors as Renewable Biopolymers

Mark Thies
Clemson University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]This research focuses on translating the invention of an environmentally friendly extraction process for producing ultrapure lignins to fill the need in society for inexpensive, renewable biopolymers. Lignin is one of the world's most abundant biopolymers (second only to cellulose), but is unique because of its aromatic nature, giving it special properties. With the invention of the Aqueous Lignin Purification with Hot Acids (ALPHA) process, lignins with very low levels of impurities and of controlled molecular weight (i.e., "ultra pure") can now be recovered from biomass by-product streams, such as the black liquor from paper mills. These ultrapure lignins have the potential to replace petroleum-derived, nonrenewable polymers in a wide variety of applications, including foams, coatings, and carbon fibers. Today, the so-called Kraft lignins available on the market have over 100 times the metals content of ultrapure lignins (i.e., 10,000 vs 100 ppm), with little or no control of molecular weight. In this project, ALPHA will be integrated with the Sequential Liquid-Lignin Recovery and Purification (SLRP) process to convert black liquor to Kraft lignin and then to ultrapure lignin. Both processes use renewable aqueous acetic acid (SLRP as an acidification reagent and ALPHA as an extractive solvent) and both are continuous processes, so overall costs will be minimized compared to the current batch technologies[/read]

1.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Liquid Charging in Electrostatic Atomizers for Coating And Painting Applications

Farzad Mashayek
University of Illinois at Chicago
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] The focus of this research is to investigate the process of the generation of electrical charges at the nozzles of sprays. This work will be done in collaboration with an industrial partner, Spraying Systems Company (SSCo), a large international manufacturer of spray products with a well-equipped research lab near the University of Illinois at Chicago. The motivation for the research is to facilitate the commercialization of the electrostatic atomizers for coating and painting applications. Both of these applications would benefit significantly from the ability to control drop trajectories to avoid waste, provide precision deposition, and reduce the spread of hazardous materials. The proposed work aims at providing the understanding needed to achieve these performance characteristics. In addition, a low-cost computational model as a predictive tool for the design of these atomizers is being developed. The proposal includes concurrent studies based on theory, computation and experiments. A successful electrostatic atomizer for non-conducting liquids will provide great advantages in sprays and coatings, which are materials that surround us and we use in everyday life.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

  Networking: Coffee Break  

1.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Unprecedented Chain-growth Polymerization Method to Access Structurally Defined Hyperbranched Polymers

Haifeng Gao
University of Notre Dame
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] To provide robust and affordable polymer materials, one thrust in polymer chemistry is to develop efficient and inexpensive polymerization method that can prepare well-defined polymers with precisely controlled structures, compositions and dimensions. These polymers could be translated into functional materials for specific applications, such as self-healing materials, nanocomposites, coatings, lubricants, microelectronics and nanomedicines. In this research, funded by the Macromolecular, Supramolecular and Nanochemistry Program of the Division of Chemistry, Professor Haifeng Gao at the University of Notre Dame develops a facile one-pot one-batch polymerization method that can prepare functional polymers with highly branched structures and very narrow size distribution. This research seeks to develop a conceptually new polymerization method that applies the copper (Cu)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerization of ABm (m is greater than or equal to 2) monomers to form polytriazole-based hyperbranched polymers in one pot. An important feature of this method is the confinement of the Cu catalyst within each hyperbranched polymer molecule, resulting in a chain-growth polymerization mechanism with a linear increase of polymer molecular weight and decreased polydispersity with reaction conversion.[/read]

1.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Colloids with Programmable Surfaces: A Polymer Approach to Self-Assembly

Stefano Sacanna
New York University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] There is a fascinating way of imparting new properties to a material that does not require altering its chemical composition, but rather changing the structural arrangement of matter within the material itself. Creating an underlying microstructure can enable bulk materials to interact with energy in unique and unconventional ways. The result are emerging new properties that do not normally exist in nature. The practical realization of such materials, however, is not straightforward, as it requires creating microscopic features that are regularly spaced throughout a three-dimensional object. While this is not achievable via a classic top-down approach, colloidal self-assembly offers a conceptually simple route to impart such microscopic order in a bottom-up fashion. The research seeks to discover novel methodologies to manipulate and rationally assemble microscopic building blocks into complex micro-architectures and ultimately into functional new materials. Inexpensive polymers and simple electrostatic charges are used to mediate the binding interactions between the building blocks, thus effectively imparting assembly information. The results are complex "soups" of colloidal building blocks from which new materials are expected to self-assemble and emerge.[/read]

1.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Nanostructured Composite Coatings to Harden and Toughen Polymer Surfaces

Daeyeon Lee
University of Pennsylvania
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]
Owing to their low density, high toughness, ease of processing and low cost, polymers are playing increasingly important roles in a broad set of applications, including electronics, vehicles, building materials, and industrial and household appliances. Compared to metals and ceramics, however, polymers have rather poor scratch- and wear-resistance. A common approach to enhance the scratch/wear resistance of polymers is to add hard coatings on their surfaces. However, many conventional hard coatings suffer from poor adhesion to the polymer and can crack easily. Furthermore, the conventional deposition methods for hard coatings are often done under negative pressure, making them expensive and challenging to implement for large-area processing. In this presentation, I will describe a new class of nanostructured coatings that have high scratch and crack resistance and can be produced using an inexpensive scalable method. We have recently developed nanocomposite coatings with extremely high concentrations of nanoparticles based on infiltration of polymers into nanoparticle films. These coatings can be formed directly on the surface of polymers to produce coatings that have very strong adhesion and high scratch resistance. Scratch resistant nanocomposite hard coatings can potentially be used as key components of next-generation energy storage and conversion devices as well as optical, biosensors and electronic devices. Also, such materials have applications as barriers in electronics and food packaging. I will describe the impact of nanoconfinement on the dynamics of polymer infiltration and also discuss how the composition of the coatings affect the mechanical properties of these polymer-infiltrated nanoparticle coatings.[/read]

1.7

5:30 - 6:00 PM

Self-Stimulating Antimicrobial Photocatalytic Coatings

Brij Moudgil
University of Florida

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commercially used as a white pigment in a wide variety of products including paper, paints, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods; it is also used as a UV absorbing agent in cosmetics. In these applications, TiO2 is considered to be inert under visible light conditions, since it reflects the entire visible spectrum. In this study, we have developed TiO2 coatings on which the bacteria sensitizes TiO2 coating particles and activates its own photocatalytic decomposition under visible light. For example, we have shown that a bacterial contaminant, such as Staphylococcus aureus—a MRSA surrogate, causes its own death under visible light when it comes in contact with the TiO2 coating. When tested on indoor surfaces, such a coating was found to reduce the incidence of infections over a period of six months. Antimicrobial, photocatalytic TiO2 coatings have the potential of providing a green alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants.[/read]

Session 2:  Wood Coatings

Chair: Jeff Lackey
Diamond Vogel

2.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Unique Waterborne Alternatives for Industrial Wood Applications

Laurie Morris
Alberdingk Boley

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Solvent based conversion varnishes have been the coatings of choice for industrial wood applications for many years. These coatings can provide an attractive durable finish that is cost effective. Kitchen cabinet and furniture manufacturers choose these coatings because they are fast drying, they are easily repaired, they tolerate climate differences well and they are extremely forgiving. Some of these coatings have good chemical and water resistance and good wear resistance. The disadvantage of these chemistries is the high volatile organic compound (VOC), the formaldehyde emissions and the pot life incurred when the conversion varnish is catalyzed with an acid catalyst. Due to increasing regulations, more environmentally friendly alternatives are now being considered. Waterborne acrylics and water-based UV coatings are becoming more common for use in industrial wood applications because they have excellent resistance and mechanical properties, excellent application properties and very low solvent emissions. Self-crosslinking acrylics have very good durability and moderately fast drying times. Waterborne (WB) UV chemistry is gaining market share over traditional solvent-based chemistry because it enables the end user to increase production efficiency and maintain a smaller manufacturing footprint. Both WB acrylics and WB UV can be formulated to pass Kitchen Cabinet Manufacturers Association (KCMA) and Architectural Woodworking Standards (AWS) specifications. A new platform of WB acrylics has been developed which lends itself to crosslinking with low toxicity carbodiimides. This paper will compare the performance of these new WB self-crosslinking acrylics in both 1K and 2K formulations with WB UV coatings and solvent-based conversion varnishes. Test methods and formulating techniques will be discussed.[/read]

2.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Coatings for Mass Timber Products

Mojgan Nejad
Michigan State University

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Recently many innovate architects and green building engineers are using mass timber products mainly cross-laminated timber (CLT) to build multi-story wooden buildings. They are attractive and beautiful at first, but wood scientists are concerned how these buildings perform and look after a few years of natural weathering exposure. This study was designed to evaluate and test performance of a wide range of coatings available in North American market to screen and select best coatings for long-term weathering studies at two different sites. More than 35 different coatings (transparent and semi-transparent stains and paints) were purchased and analyzed in the lab by measuring their properties such as: solid content, pH, viscosity (Rheometer), glass transition temperature (Tg) using differential scanning calorimeter, surface tension (Tensiometer) and their dynamic contact angles on wood. In addition, moisture excluding efficacy and water vapor permeability of these coating on CLT samples were tested in the lab. Then, a chemometric model (PLSR) was developed to find correlations between coating properties and their performance in the lab to select the top best coatings for exterior application on mass timber.[/read]

2.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Impacts of Silane Modified Colloidal Silica on Waterborne Clear Coatings

Peter Greenwood
Akzo Nobel Pulp & Performance Chemicals

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Water-free systems of silane modified colloidal silica particles have been found to enhance mechanical properties of coatings. Aqueous colloidal silica has been used in co-polymerization of resins and co-polymerized colloidal silica resin hybrids are also used to enhance a variety of coatings properties like hardness, anti-blocking and reduced dirt-pickup. Non-surface modified colloidal silica has been tested as nano-filler in latex coatings with encouraging results concerning mechanical properties.

AkzoNobel has developed silane modified colloidal silica to use in waterborne coating. Concentrated epoxysilane modified colloidal silica in the form of aqueous sols is one of most readily available sources of nano-particles for the coating area. Such sols are characterized by high solids content, up to at least 50 % by weight of silica depending on particle size which ranges from about 5 nm to 100 nm. Compared with conventional silica sols, silane modified colloidal silica has greater stability towards aggregation and gelling, both as is and in latex-based coating formulations.

The effect of epoxysilane modified colloidal silica, added to water-based coating formulations, on the mechanical properties of resin films was studied. In general, the effect of the silica particles depended strongly on the resin and other components of the coating formulation but very significant improvements of block resistance (and hence sanding properties) were seen. In addition, extended open time, better penetration and substrate wetting for “anfeuerung” in acrylic resin based wood coatings and additionally of mechanical properties in 2-pack PUD system could be observed.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

Networking: Coffee Break

2.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Novel Oil Modified Urethane for Wood Flooring Applications

Yuting Li
Polynt

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Vegetable oil modified urethane (OMU) has been widely used in wood flooring applications for many decades. Due to tightening Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) regulations in recent years, the market has been slowly shifting towards water-borne systems. However, most of the current water-borne OMUs either still contain N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), or the VOC is still relatively high at 135-250 g/L while the non-volatile (NV) content is relatively low at 32-38% and thus require multiple coats to achieve performance properties. In this paper we will demonstrate our most recent breakthrough in the development of a novel NMP free water-borne OMU with a VOC <100 g/L and a high 45% NV content that maintains the exceptional performance properties of traditional solvent-borne and water-borne OMUs in the market. Its potential applications include but are not limited to high performance clear wood floor coatings, conformal coatings, air dry and force cure coatings.[/read]

2.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Going Higher-Novel High Solids Alkyds for Paints and Stains

Jeffrey Arendt
Arkema

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

High solids and exempt solvent approaches are common techniques to reduce the VOC of solvent based alkyd coatings. Exempt solvents face limitations in odor, solubility, cost, flash point and geographic compliance. High solid approaches offer a more robust solution if performance can be maintained. Typically performance is not maintained as contemporary high solids alkyd technology often utilizes higher oil/fatty acid levels to reduce viscosity thereby compromising dry time and hardness development. Previously, Arkema/CCP introduced a branched long oil reactive diluent based on sucrose ester technology that offered low viscosity and fast dry. The sucrose ester approach offered a technical solution for achieving performance at reduced VOCs, however this solution was feedstock limited and commercially challenged. In response to this Arkema has developed a new polymer platform to overcome these issues. The new platform is derived from readily available feedstock materials and is useful for creating alkyd polymers with a low viscosity and fast dry profile. This paper will show how modifications of this new platform can be used to create low VOC alkyd paints for decorative, wood, and maintenance applications with a performance VOC balance not achievable with a conventional high solids approaches.[/read]

2.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

New Generation Binders for Deck Finishing

Ramesh Subramanian
Allnex

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Although the decking industry is seeing changes in the types of materials used in new construction / rebuild, for example wood-plastic based composites, the use of stains and sealers remains dominant for the maintenance sector. Good aesthetics in combination with superior protection, penetration and wear are persistent themes in the decking market. It is therefore essential that these wood finishes provide both long lasting beauty and durability.

Aligned with the trend to more highly durable deck stain systems, we’ve seen a shift in technology from waterborne systems based on oil/alkyd to acrylic modified oil/alkyd and now to oil/alkyd modified acrylics. Allnex has developed an acrylic based core/shell technology where the composition of the core can be varied from homogeneous to gradient to multicore while the shell can be widely varied in terms of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity. These variations enable the balancing of hardness-flexibility as well as penetration, flow & levelling, the properties needed to achieve high levels of both performance and appearance.

In this paper, this novel acrylic core/shell technology will be described. Fundamental considerations as well as performance properties of deck stains based on several prototype binders from this exciting new technology will be presented.[/read]

Session 3: Functional and Smart Coatings

Chair: Jamil Baghdachi
Eastern Michigan University

3.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Smart, Temperature-Triggered On-Demand Release Catalyst
Jamil Baghdachi
Eastern Michigan University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Tunable polymers are part of functional and smart materials that respond to multitude of stimuli to provide on-demand functionality. The increase in reaction rates of some chemical reactions in general, is achieved by catalysis. However, in products that require long-term stability, the catalyst must either be added at the point of application or in a protected form that becomes active upon application of external triggering mechanism such as thermal energy. The application of high levels of thermal energy as well as complexity of formulation is not a sustainable process. One approach for achieving reactions and catalysis at lower temperatures is to use catalysts that can be activated on-demand by various external stimuli under mild conditions. In this work we report the preparation, characterization and application of low temperature on-demand release catalyst. The stimuli responsive catalyst was prepared in the form of microcapsules that contained liquid dinonylnaphthalenedisulfonic acid protected by thin Side Chain Crystalline polymeric shell having a distinctive sharp melting point. We have demonstrated that by using stimuli responsive microcapsule technology an acrylic melamine formaldehyde coating can be cured at 50-75OC. This cure temperature is about one-half of the temperature required by blocked catalysts. Additionally, low-temperature cured coatings of this investigation can be viewed as a step forward in development of many other coating systems and those of highly sustainable thermosetting industrial coatings. [/read]

3.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

The Novel Photocatalytic Coating for the Industrial Coil System
Sheng-Wei
Lin Eternal Materials
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] The photocatalytic coating provides useful functionalities with a self-cleaning behavior and an organic pollution decomposing ability for many areas to avoid a dirty surface of contamination from the environment. However, the application of the photocatalytic coating for the online coil system is not prevailed to the present-day industrial coating. In this paper, we have developed a self-cleaning coating containing a top photoactive layer and an intermediate layer which enables to fulfill a better weathering performance. Such conspicuous improvement may arise from an excellent flexibility of the inorganic intermediate layer. And this is also demonstrated from a coated substrate that was treated at 260℃ for 45 seconds and cooled down to the ambient temperature back and forth for 3 times. The hydrophilic behavior and the decomposing ability were investigated by exposing a coated substrate to a heavy polluted industrial area. Besides, owing to the design of dual layers, a long-term weathering resistance was achieved by the experimental exposure of the QUV machine and the outdoor environment. This prominent self-cleaning coating may find a unique application for the coil industry of the exterior architectural domain.[/read]

3.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Improved Performance of Organic Zinc-Rich Primers via Microencapsulated Healing Agents
Subramanyam Kasisomayajula
Autonomic Materials
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Zinc-rich coatings are used extensively in a variety of industries for the corrosion protection of steel substrates in extremely corrosive environments. It is widely known that these coatings provide sacrificial cathodic protection to steel via galvanic corrosion of zinc particles. In general, the sacrificial protection persists as long as contact between the zinc particles and with the substrate is maintained. With exposure to a corrosive environment over time, the zinc particles corrode, forming a non-conductive oxide layer around the particles. The non-conductive oxide layer compromises the conductivity of the galvanic protection system impairing its protective capability. In this talk, we will report on our efforts to exploit potential synergies between the galvanic protection of steel substrates offered by organic zinc-rich primers and self-healing functionality designed into the coating for the extension of the lifetime of the protective system. We will discuss design elements employed, characterization methods, results obtained and their implications for a smarter protective system for steel substrates.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

Networking: Coffee Break

3.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Multifunctional Coating Based on Nano Fillers and Natural Substances
Roberto Cafagna
Nanto Cleantech
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Demands for control and management of ships’ biofouling are pushing development and adoption of new technologies that are cost-effective and more environment-friendly. At the same time, anticorrosion properties and low friction surfaces are required for increasing life time of coating system and fuel saving for applications in the maritime sector. New multifunctional coating system is proposed, matching high-durability together with anti-friction and drag reduction features, combining with antifouling and anticorrosion requirements for the marine industry. A polymeric infrastructure containing suitably modified nanoparticles is investigated. A layer containing a resin dispersion of functionalised nanoclays is used for corrosion inhibition. An additional layer, suitably adapted to meet synergistic effects with other layers, is used to provide either a durable superhydrophobic coating based on functionalised nanosilicas or ‎for the dispersion of novel ecologically compatible anti-microbial-adhesion- agents, mainly based on natural substances‎. The final coating system is able to provide high barrier patented features together with low friction properties or with a layer containing enzyme based antifouling active substances, without any additional biocide.[/read]

3.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Water-Based Superhydrophobic Coating on Al with Excellent Anti-corrosion
Shunli Zheng
Nanyang Technological University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Aluminum (Al) and its alloys are important engineering materials in modern industry due to their numerous advantages and have been widely used in various fields, including aerospace, marine, civilian industries and so on. However, they are prone to corrosion and contamination under harsh environment conditions, particularly in marine environment when exposed to salty water or moisture for quite a long time, which can adversely affect their aesthetic appearance and desired functionalities or even cause economic losses and serious accidents. To prevent or delay the corrosion, the hydrophilic nature of Al and its alloy surfaces can be transformed to be hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. In this study, we reported an environmentally friendly water-based bio-epoxy superhydrophobic coating (WBSC) without using volatile solvents. The coating is composed of bio-epoxy resin, nano silica, as well as hydrophobic curing agent, applied by spin method on Al alloy substrates. The surface morphology and roughness were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The WBSC with 40 wt.% nano silica loading displays a water contact angle (CA) as high as 165.8 ± 3.3° and a sliding angle (SA) as low as 5.3 ± 2.5°. Electrochemical measurement results showed that the as-prepared WBSC has a decrease of 3 orders of magnitude in the corrosion current density (Jcorr) and significant shift from −1.16 V to −0.708 V in the corrosion potential (Ecorr), indicating excellent corrosion resistance. The WBSC was further proven to function well after immersion in common solvents including deionized (DI) water, ethanol and acetone for 48 h. In addition, the as-prepared WBSC also showed good self-cleaning performance. The developed coating is green and no harm to human health and environment. The facile and eco-friendly process is of great importance for many industrial applications which can provide an attractive way towards anti-wetting surfaces for corrosion protection and self-cleaning effect on a variety of engineering substrates. Key words: Water-based; Bio-epoxy; Superhydrophobic coating; Al alloy; Corrosion resistance; Self-cleaning[/read]

3.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Water-Borne Superhydrophobic Coating
W. Marshall Ming
Georgia Southern University
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] There has been substantial interest in developing superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces in both academia and industry due to their potentially wide applications. The well-known self-cleaning property of the lotus leaf is due to a combination of proper chemistry and unique dual-scale surface topography. We have successfully mimicked the dual-scale structure either by incorporating nano-raspberry-like particles to polymer films or via layer-by-layer particle deposition, which have been turned superhydrophobic with very low water roll-off angles. We have further expanded our strategy to prepare robust water-borne superhydrophobic coatings by judiciously combining silicone-containing acrylic latexes made from emulsion polymerization with micro/nano-sized inorganic particles.[/read]

Session 4: Grinding & Dispersing

Chair: Brij Mohal
Chromaflo Technologies

4.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Ultra High Solids Grinding Resin
Gautam Haldankar
Allnex
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Increasingly stringent environmental regulations continue to challenge the coatings industry to reduce emissions while improving film properties at the same time. This has led to opportunities in coating resin design and synthesis. Over the last decade a number of highly innovative applications in acrylic polymerization have emerged that enable the synthesis of a variety of complex architectures aimed at improving the solids-viscosity profile of coatings without sacrificing performance. We have developed a novel polymerization process that provides polymers having guaranteed functionality, uniform functionality distribution and narrow polydispersity. In coatings formulations, the VOC of the pigment dispersion is one of the major limiting factors in attaining low VOC of the coatings. If the solids of the pigment dispersion are lowered it gives an excellent opportunity to lower the VOC of the entire paint-line, which wouldn’t be possible otherwise. In this paper we describe a novel ultra-high solids (90% NVM) acrylic polyol as an efficient grinding resin. Using mass spectrometry we have demonstrated that each polymer chain contains at least one hydroxyl functionality (guaranteed functionality), which is necessary for good wetting as well as for good film properties. We have also observed a three-fold advantage of the novel grinding resin of lowering the VOC, increasing the pigment concentration of the grind, and shortening the grind time of the mill-base. We have demonstrated these advantages by using difficult to grind pigments like jet carbon black and organic perylene maroon. This technology offers tremendous value for protective and automotive coatings.[/read]

4.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Hydrophobic Water-Based Dispersion for Improved Coatings
Lang Nguyen
Cabot Corporation
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Manufacturers of coatings, paints and inks continually face challenges associated with meeting stricter, ever-evolving environmental standards, adapting to new applications or technologies, and fulfilling the performance demands of customers and consumers. One of these challenges is shifting from solvent- to water-based coatings systems. This shift to water-based systems has gained momentum in the past few years due to passed legislation regulating the emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from paints and coatings. We believe that a seamless transition from solvent- to water-based coatings systems can be realized through the use of performance additives that enable and facilitate ease-of-manufacturing as well as improved performance with respect to the base resin system. Using a proprietary process in which a highly hydrophobically treated silica is converted and incorporated into a waterborne dispersion, we developed a new matting dispersion solution for water-based coatings and paints. This new hydrophobic, water-based dispersion offers ease-of-incorporation, as well as high performance for coating formulations: low gloss, improved hardness development with early water resistance, and ease-of-incorporation were observed in urethane, urethane/acrylic hybrid, and acrylic-based systems when compared to the base resins. This new silica dispersion simplifies the manufacturing process and eliminates the need to use low density powders, resulting in cleaner and more efficient operations. Our results show that the hydrophobic water-based dispersion we have developed can be used in coating applications that require low gloss or matte appearance with good haptics, such as those for wood flooring and furniture, automotive interior plastic surfaces, and/or leather coatings.[/read]

4.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Improved Durability Through Reactive Dispersant Technology
Steffen Onclin
BASF
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Even though formulation additives form only a minor part of a coating formulation, they can have pronounced effects on the physical properties of the final coating. This is especially true for pigment dispersants, which can enter a coating formulation “under the radar” through, for example, pigment pastes. As dispersants are often polar polymers with a low glass transition temperature, the interface between the pigment and continuous phase forms a weak point, especially in coatings designed for high-durability. In this paper, we address the development of a new dispersant technology. The dispersants are functionalized such that they become part of the continuous phase of the coating, improving overall film integrity. Application examples in both waterborne and solvent borne formulations will discuss the effects of this reactive technology on mechanical and barrier properties in comparison to conventional systems.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

  Networking: Coffee Break  

4.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

New Polymeric Dispersants for Industrial Coatings
Mihai Polverejan
Elementis
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] The use of an adequate dispersant is necessary to achieve good stability and color properties for dispersed pigments in waterborne paint systems. Electrostatic repulsive and steric hindrance forces can be achieved by combining with Polyelectrolyte dispersants and traditional non-ionic surfactants. Improved stability and behavior can be achieved with the new high molecular weight dispersants discussed in this paper. It is shown that the new polymeric dispersants are suitable for low VOC-free and APE free pigment dispersions for industrial and Ink applications. Compared to traditional polymeric types the properties are enhanced: they provide excellent color strength development, high pigment loading at low viscosity, improved stability and high gloss development. Key Words: Dispersants, industrial coatings, architectural coatings, inks[/read]

4.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Design of Pigment Dispersants for High-Performance Applications
Andrew Shooter
Lubrizol
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] With increasing regulatory and environmental requirements there is a drive towards developing water based VOC free pigmented coating formulations with the same aesthetic properties as solvent based systems. The pigment dispersant in addition, to providing fast wetting and desirable colouristic effects will also impact the overall durability of the coating. Novel anchor groups have enabled us to design improved dispersants which can be formulated into coatings with superior jetness and colour strength. These dispersants can reduce the particle size in much less time than conventional dispersants using less energy during the milling process while providing the required stability and compatibility in the coating formulation. In addition, through efficiency in design couple with judicious selection of stabilising chains, the dispersant can be optimised to minimise its impact on water sensitivity and corrosion resistance. After proving that these principles deliver superior dispersants on organic pigments and carbon black, our recent focus has been to deliver the same benefits on high end inorganic pigments for industrial applications such as transparent iron oxides. In this paper we will discuss these design principles and show how this has translated into superior performance in waterborne industrial coatings.[/read]

4.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Easy-Dispersing Inorganic Pigments for Water & Solvent-Based Coatings
David Giner
Al-Farben (Torrecid Group)
[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"] Easy Dispersing Inorganic Pigments are modified complex inorganic colored pigments which can be used in most types of coating applications. Using only a dissolver, they can achieve the optimum tinting power because of their low dispersing effort requirement. This advanced family of pigments is the easiest and most environmentally friendly way of coloring coating applications such as coil coating or architectural decorative paints using only dry powder, avoiding pre-mixes with unnecessary solvents. Most common inorganic pigments have aggregated and agglomerated phases in their powder form due to their ordinary manufacturing process. This process has a milling stage as a final manufacturing step in which the particles are reduced to very fine sizes. After this process the fine particles tend to re-agglomerate and re-aggregate and this is the reason why high mechanical energy is necessary to reach good dispersion in coatings. By a new and innovative process, EDP are stabilized to prevent re-agglomeration and re-aggregation problems after milling process and as a consequence, easier and more effective dispersion processes are obtained with these stunning advanced pigments. The dispersion levels achieved for different families of EDP will be evaluated and compared with standard pigment grinding. It will be also evaluated an idea of the cost-savings achieved by this coatings production process.[/read]

April 10, 2018
Tuesday Morning Schedule

Session 5:  Architectural Coatings I

Chair: Rajeev Farwaha
Celanese

5.1

9:00 - 9:30 am

Early Rain Resistance and Surfactant Leaching Resistant Binder

Maurille Secher
Omnova Solutions

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The development of an effective water borne technology for exterior paints has become a real challenge in the architectural coatings market, due to the growing expectations of end users (total cost of ownership), diversification of materials used for exterior walls and siding, and the continuous trend towards VOC reduction. This paper describes a new product based on OMNOVA’s Low Exudation Binder (LEB) platform, for formulation of exterior paints, where pure acrylic binders are typically used for reasons of excellent colour retention in very deep tones. The new binder possesses the advantages common to those of the LEB technology, namely very low surfactant leaching, excellent resistance to efflorescence, and long term adhesion, and in addition, very early rain resistance, allowing to extend the application window. Furthermore, paints formulated with the new binder have very low VOC emissions, and are in-line with all the most stringent current environmental requirements.[/read]

5.2

9:30 - 10:00 am

Developing and Evaluating Early Rain Resistance in Exterior Architectural Coatings

Shelby Kellogg
BASF

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High humidity and precipitation challenges the ability of exterior architectural coatings to properly cure and provide the necessary protection of exterior surfaces. To increase early rain resistance and water sensitivity, different formulation techniques were investigated. Raw materials were evaluated in a standard starting point formula to generate an optimal formulation that reduces water sensitivity and surfactant leaching, while simultaneously increasing early rain resistance. Results for early rain resistance were determined by developing new testing methodology that varied environmental factors during the film curing process. We determined that using functional additives as well as the optimization of cross-link density within the coating film, we can substantially increase early rain resistance.[/read]

5.3

10:00 - 10:30 am

Technology Advancement to Enhance Versatility of VAE in Architectural Paint

Ming Tsang
Celanese

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Vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymers (VAE) emulsions have been widely used to formulate environmentally friendly, low odor and low VOC interior architectural paints for many years. VAE based paints offer superior scrub resistance and excellent touch-up properties. However, conventional VAE emulsions do have some inherent drawbacks. For example, non-flat paints based solely on VAE binders exhibit relatively poor block and dirt pick-up resistance. Typically, paint formulators overcome these limitations by blending VAE with acrylic in higher sheen paints, resulting in higher cost and complexity of the paint formulation.

In this paper, we discuss how new techniques, such as Inclusion Technology, can be used to modify VAE’s morphology and chemistry. In addition, we will show how these new generation VAE exhibit much improved performance properties, including block and stain resistance, when compared to conventional VAE. By overcoming the deficiencies of VAE, formulators are enabled to expand VAE’s usage into exterior applications, as well as using VAE as the sole binder in non-flat paints.[/read]

10:30 - 11:00 am

Networking: Coffee Break

5.4

11:00 - 11:30 am

Impact of Coalescent on Deck Restoration Products

Dan Stark
Arkema Coating Resins

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Deck restoration products comprise a relatively new segment for the architectural coatings market. Coatings marketed for this application are typically higher volume solids than a traditional wall paint and are applied at dry film thicknesses between 20 and 40 mils. Final formulation plays a significant role in the final properties achieved in the field. Arkema Coating Resins is currently developing the next generation APEO Free base latex for this application and has investigated the impact of coalescent on coating performance. Coalescent choice and level can impact the coatings ability to maintain flexibility and adhesion to the substrate. Proper coalescent selection has also been shown to significantly impact the durability and scratch resistance of a cast film. An experimental method to predict film flexibility and durability in the field is proposed.[/read]

5.5

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Drying of low-Tg latex film: studies by OCT-Gravimetry-Video method

Hao Huang
Lehigh University

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Waterborne latex coatings are gaining larger popularity and development due to their low volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and improved performances of applications. However, the drying process of latex film formation is inhomogeneous (i.e. spatial distribution of latex particles is non-uniform and evolving with time), causing defects of dried coatings, which still lacks mechanistic understandings. This research uses Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)-Gravimetry-Video method to non-invasively study the drying inhomogeneity of latex films, including packing of particles, cracking and skin layer formation. This method combines OCT, digital balance and video camera together to simultaneously monitor the local internal structure, the global water evaporation rate, and the visual appearance of film as a function of drying time. Results showed the packing profile of particles that started accumulating from the top down to the bottom of film, which was affected by the particle size. After packing stage, for high Tg particles, “shear banding” and cracking structures appeared; for low Tg particles, skin layer formed and thickened with time. The effects of water-soluble additives, especially surfactants, on the cracking, skin formation and drying time of films will also be reported.[/read]

5.6

12:00 - 12:30 PM

Effects of Latex and Thickener Hydrophobicity on the Rheology and Stability of Aqueous Latex-HEUR Mixtures

Travis Smith
California Polytechnic State University

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Results of our recent studies towards understanding the mechanisms of flocculation, syneresis, and rheology of commercial and model latex and HEUR (Hydrophobically-Modified, Ethoxylated Urethane) mixtures will be presented. Previous work with commercial latexes and HEUR thickeners established a correlation among the bridging flocculation of latex particles with HEUR thickeners with their syneresis and shear-thickening viscosity behavior. However, establishing direct evidence of the mechanisms was not possible due to the unknown nature of structural details of the commercial products. The use of well-characterized model latexes and thickeners and the use of an additional characterization technique, diffusing wave spectroscopy, allowed effective probing of mechanistic details of the latex-HEUR interactions, which are consistent with models previously reported for commercial materials.[/read]

12:30 - 2:00 pm

Networking: Conference Lunch

Session 6: Polyurethanes I

Chair: Scott Grace
Covestro

6.1

9:00 - 9:30 am

Novel Polyol Dispersions with End of Usable Pot-life Indicator

Mohsen Soleimani
BASF

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New Concepts for High Performance Polyol Dispersions Suitable for 2-pack Coatings with Polyisocyanates

Decreasing VOC emissions of coatings has been a progressive effort for scientists active in the coatings industry. At equal solids content, dispersions generally afford a lower viscosity compared to solutions. Therefore, replacing solvent borne systems with waterborne dispersions is an effective strategy to reduce VOC emissions.

Performance in coatings is strongly coupled to the presence of a thermoset network formed via a crosslinking mechanism. A common approach is combining a solvent borne polyol with a poly isocyanate to form a thermoset coating after application. The urethane network formed this way delivers desired properties such as toughness and chemical resistance. Polyol dispersions offer a significant VOC benefit and can be combined with poly isocyanates in a similar way. Unlike the solventborne systems, polyol dispersions available on the market lack a discernible end of pot-life marker and contain significant hydrophilic moieties that detract from the coating performance.

In this paper, we introduce waterborne dispersions with very clean water phase, free of hydrophilic moieties common in traditional polyol dispersions. Such high-performance dispersions can be formulated to provide both chemical and corrosion resistance with fast property development to fulfil requirements of several applications including demanding usages such as DTM. Furthermore, we describe polyol dispersions with an end of pot-life indication via viscosity increase similar to solvent based systems.[/read]

6.2

9:30 - 10:00 am

Aesthetic Value in Polyamide-Based Polyurethane Coatings

Chris Swech
Lubrizol

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We developed a novel type of polyurethane technology based on polyamide soft segments. Recently we showed that these materials can be used to make high performance coatings and commercialized the first polyurethane dispersions for metal and wood applications. In this paper we demonstrate how polyamide-based urethane coatings not only provide high quality finishes, they also conform to specific aesthetic expectations: high clarity matte finishes (gloss <10) without added flattening agents, dispersions matching solvent borne aesthetic qualities (gloss and DOI), and coatings with other surface effects can be designed. Application specific properties and the role of the polyamide soft segment in obtaining these unique properties will be discussed for wood, metal and plastic coatings.[/read]

6.3

10:00 - 10:30 am

New Urethane Diol Resin Modifiers for Improved Performance of Aminoplast Crosslinked Coatings

Matthew Gadman
King Industries

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New water soluble urethane diol resins have been developed to be used as resin modifiers for waterborne coatings systems crosslinked with amino resins. These urethane diols are a multipurpose chemical species that can be utilized to enhance performance properties as well as resolve some of the common issues experienced when formulating waterborne systems.

The above mentioned resin modifiers are water soluble without the presence of amine neutralizers, surfactants or co-solvents. Incorporating these urethane diols will thus improve the water solubility of a resin system in a wet paint, subsequently reducing the need for neutralizing amines and additionally allowing for easier resin incorporation with less co-solvent requirements. As resin modifiers, the urethane backbone allows formulators to enhance performance of aminoplast crosslinked coatings by incorporating urethane groups into a crosslinked network without the use of an isocyanate.

This work demonstrates the versatility of these urethane diols and further discusses how they can be used to enhance coating performance by improving corrosion and humidity resistance, as well as increasing hardness while maintaining flexibility.[/read]

10:30 - 11:00 am

Networking: Coffee Break

6.4

11:00 - 11:30 am

Versatile self-crosslinking polyurethane dispersion for low VOC coatings across multiple markets

Aditi Chavannavar
BASF

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A low MFFT, self-crosslinking aliphatic polyurethane dispersion (PUD) has been developed. It can be used in low VOC formulations and combines good appearance, film formation and toughness with excellent hardness and abrasion resistance. In this study, we have evaluated the self-crosslinking PUD in different applications; from high performing wood coatings to protective coatings for rigid plastics and as a top coat for metal. In the paper to follow, we will demonstrate the application properties of this resin such as its hardness development, resistance to chemicals, adhesion, weathering etc. and thereby validate the versatility of this resin in several applications. We have also assessed film formation and mechanical properties of the PUD through microscopic and DMA analyses and will discuss how these influence the performance of the coatings.[/read]

6.5

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Isocyanate-free 2K polyurethane coating hybrids with improved scratch and mar resistance


Dmitry Chernyshov
Momentive Performance Materials

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Development of isocyanate-free polyurethane technologies is continuing to gain considerable traction in the coating industry. Recent tightening of regulatory legislation has imposed strong incentives to develop alternative synthetic routes to more environmentally friendly polyurethane technologies. In this context, alkoxysilane cure chemistries provides coating scientists with a useful toolbox for designing new generations of compliant, high-performance PU coating systems. In the current paper, we will focus on new concepts utilizing an organosilicone approach towards NCO-free PU coating hybrids with improved physical and mechanical properties. Numerous formulation examples will demonstrate how such technologies can be beneficial for development of highly durable and scratch resistant clearcoat systems.[/read]

6.6

12:00 - 12:30 PM

Advances in Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane (NIPU) Coatings Platform

Vijay Mannari
Eastern Michigan University

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Polyurethane coatings have emerged as undisputed systems of choice for myriads of end-use environments due to their broad range of thermo-mechanical properties combined with versatility of applications on a variety of substrates. However, the use of isocyanates in their production has raised concerns. Addressing this need, a number of novel approaches and some commercial products have started making debut in the commercial market space. Building onto the cyclic carbonate / Amine chemistry, we have successfully developed a Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane (NIPU) platform with a library of functional building blocks derived from a range of polycyclic carbonates and polyamines. These tunable NIPU building blocks can be customized for water-based, high-solid and UV-curable coatings. This presentation will focus on design and synthesis of NIPU systems for two-component low-VOC high-solid (2K-HS-NIPU) as well as UV-curable (UV-NIPU) coatings. Both 2K-HS NIPU and UV-NIPU coatings have been evaluated for advanced military coating applications. The results suggest that these coatings meet or exceed environmental as well as performance requirements for military coatings. This NIPU platform can be successfully leveraged for formulating a broad range of advanced coatings in the high performance protective and industrial coating space.[/read]

12:30 - 2:00 pm

Networking: Conference Lunch

Session 7: Radiation Curing

Chair: Paul Lewis
Nexeo Solutions

7.1

9:00 - 9:30 am

UV LED Curable Resins for Industrial Wood Coatings

Jonathan Shaw
Allnex

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UV LED lamps are being used more frequently as replacements for traditional mercury lamps because they have long life, don’t contain mercury and generate no ozone when used. Initially, UV LED was used in the graphic arts market but as lamp manufacturers continue to improve the energy output of their lamps, their use in Industrial Coatings lines is increasing. The use of water borne (WB) UV resins is also growing as low viscosity, sprayable coatings based on these materials can be made without using solvent or large amounts of diluents. This paper will review the cure performance of several commercial UV PUDs under a variety of conditions (photoinitiator, photoinitiator concentration, cure additives, energy density and peak irradiance) and compare them with the corresponding mercury lamp cured coatings. A new UV-PUD will also be included in the evaluation to show how structural elements can improve LED cure.[/read]

7.2

9:30 - 10:00 am

Development of Two Approaches for Waterborne UV Clear and Highly Pigmented Coatings

Ziniu Yu
BASF

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UV-curable waterborne coatings are drawing more attention due to the combined advantages of UV-curing systems and waterborne coatings, including  matting ease, handling efficiency, monomer free, and faster manufacturing throughput among other benefits. Achieving good chemical resistance and physical drying from a waterborne UV system, however, is always a challenge, especially for highly pigmented systems due to the light scattering and absorption during the curing process. In this paper, we will present two new resin approaches to achieve good physical properties for both clear and pigmented coatings. Both approaches provide not only excellent physical drying (rapid water releasing and hardness development) and tack free properties before UV curing, but also good hardness and chemical resistance after curing. In addition, the coatings provide warmth to the wood substrates and excellent adhesion to plastic substrates making them valuable for furniture, cabinet components, and automotive applications.  [/read]

7.3

10:00 - 10:30 am

New Hybrid Floor Coating Technology

Chuck Gambino
Covestro

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Great advances have occurred over the past years to develop floor coatings that have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and fast return to service. However, the attributes desired from both end-users and facility owners are very broad and can be difficult to obtain. For example, the facility owner wants a long lasting decorative finish that can be applied with minimal disruption during the application process due to solvent odors or a long cure time. For the floor coating contractor, ease of application, low defect rates, high solids, and a fast return-to-service for their client are preferred. There are various floor coating technologies available that meet some of these requirements but fail to deliver everything on the wide-ranging industry “wish list”.

A new UV-cure polyaspartate floor coating technology was recently developed, tested, and field applied to evaluate the application process. This UV polyaspartate coating satisfies the needs of both the facility owner and the floor contractor. The features of this technology include ultra-low VOC’s, high solids, user-friendly working time, excellent chemical and abrasion resistance, high end decorative appearance, physical dry properties, and most importantly fast-return to service.

In this presentation we describe how we used a Design of Experiment (DOE) to test raw material combinations to meet a quantified set of requirements for the flooring industry. The optimum raw material combination was then modified further into a coating formulation to both enhance the performance and refine the application properties. Finally, a field application was performed to evaluate the application properties and UV-curing process in a real world environment.[/read]

10:30 - 11:00 am

Networking: Coffee Break

7.4

11:00 - 11:30 am

Blending Free-Radical Chemistry with Thermally-Initiated Poly Addition Chemistry

Marcus Hutchins
Allnex

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Free radical polymerization is known for its high throughput rate, chemical resistance, scratch resistance, and high gloss due to high crosslink density. The lightning-fast curing process efficiency is only as good as the ultraviolet light the coating sees, making flat stock the optimal substrate of choice. Unlike conventional thermal or polyaddition chemistry which offers unlimited coating shapes that can be cured that can be tailored to have outstanding weatherability, robust adhesion to various substrates, and low shrinkage upon cure. This paper will explore the performance benefits that can be achieved by blending free radical chemistry with thermally initiated poly addition chemistry (solvent and waterborne) creating a coatings solution that is the best of both worlds. The data that will be presented will articulate how the combined chemistry solution has a shorter processing window, improved weatherability, and broader application utility due to improved process conditions.[/read]

7.5

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Silyl-(meth)acrylate Additives for Improving Waterborne UV-Curable Coatings

Jacob Shevrin
Evonik

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Water-borne UV curable paints are gaining popularity for floor coating applications. This is particularly true for commercial spaces, where minimizing the cure time to minimize service disruptions is crucial. Most commercially available water-borne UV curable paints are based on acrylic-modified resins, typically polyurethane based, that are dispersed in aqueous media. The UV curing process is enabled by formulating these resins with an appropriate photoinitiator, and using the correct wavelength light source to instigate the radical curing reaction that cross-links the system. Incorporation of a silane bearing a functional group that can participate in this radical curing reaction can help boost performance of the cured paint. In this work, we demonstrate that silyl-(meth)acrylates can be used as additives in these water-borne UV curable paints, and lead to improved properties of the cured paint, such as boosting adhesion and overall durability.[/read]

7.6

12:00 - 12:30 PM

Durable & Low-VOC Colorants for UV-Cured Coatings

Romesh Kumar
Clariant Plastics & Coatings

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Coatings industry is making progress in green technology by using bio based pigments in low VOC colorants. Water based coatings using such colorants have already made strong foothold in the architectural applications. Then there are dissolver dispersible pigments requiring minimal energy to achieve optimum color. Progress has been slow in the industrial and other areas. Now that low VOC colorants that are UV curable offer another option to reduce solvent emissions, and quick curing process reducing energy consumption. This is especially true in wood coatings market which has been slow in this change due to unavailability of colorants that meet durability and technical requirements. These new colorants are suitable for a variety of resin systems, offer advantages over UV cured water & solvent types. The film formation is quick with excellent gloss, and pigment chemistries offer exterior performance. Formulators, with this gamut of 16 colorants, now have options to match many shades to satisfy their customer needs. In addition, these colorants have excellent shelf stability, a major improvement over the previous technology which was a hindrance to popularity of such products.[/read]

12:30 - 2:00 pm

Networking: Conference Lunch

Session 8: Measuring & Testing

Chair: James Laugal
BASF

8.1

9:00 - 9:30 am

Degradation in a Stress, Mechanism and Response Framework: Acrylic Coatings

Donghui Li
Case Western Reserve University

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A better understanding of the effect of photoreactivity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments on the degradation modes and rates of acrylic waterborne coatings can optimize and extend the durability and lifetime of the coatings. The predictive models, netSEM (network structural equation modeling) models, were constructed from gloss and colorimetry responses. Two acrylic waterborne coatings with different amount of anatase TiO2 were exposed in outdoor exposure and accelerated exposures at periodic intervals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), colorimetry and glossmetry were used to evaluate the chemical degradation and physical property change of coatings. The results were statistically analyzed to identify statistically significant relationship by a generation of structural equation modeling techniques. Based on netSEM models, FTIR as degradation mechanism variable and gloss or colorimetry as response, showed that different degradation modes dominate the response change of samples in constant accelerated and cyclic accelerated exposure. The quantitative netSEM framework, combining chemical and physical property changes with exposure time/dose, can be utilized for the cross-correlation of accelerated and real world exposures.[/read]

8.2

9:30 - 10:00 am

Composite Particle Technology for Efficiency & Performance of Wax Additives

Onome Agori-Iwe
Micro Powders

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Composite particle technology comprises a manufacturing process that produces wax additives that are engineered for tailoring the surface properties of a coating. The manufacturing process involves melt blending, cooling, and crushing the composite followed by air micronization in a jet mill to control particle size. Using Electron Probe X-Ray Micro-Analysis (EPMA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX) Analysis to characterize the structure and morphology of the composite material, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the manufacturing process in creating a blended material that consists of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) embedded in a polyethylene (PE) matrix. Moreover, by obtaining SEM and SEM-EDX images of cross sections of a water-based PUD coating dosed with PE/PTFE composite additives, as well as a coating dosed with additives composed of PTFE, we were able to infer details about the mobility of the additives (i.e., their ability to go to the surface of the coating). To complement the characterization of these PE/PTFE dosed water-based PUD coatings, and thereby obtain a better understanding of structure-property relationships, we measured surface properties such as Taber, COF, and Pencil Hardness of water-based PUD coatings dosed with 2% w/w of the composite additive as well as of coatings dosed with the same level of PTFE and PE additives. We observed the desired synergistic effect of harnessing the physical characteristics of both PE and PTFE in the composite additive when dosed in a coating. That is, the water-based PUD coating dosed with the PE/PTFE composite exhibited good abrasion and scratch resistance as well as slip and lubricity. Overall, the results of this combined structure-property approach utilizing electron microscope techniques coupled with testing of the physical properties of the surface of coatings dosed with these composites demonstrate the benefit and value proposition of the use of surface enhancing additives created with composite particle technology.[/read]

8.3

10:00 - 10:30 am

Comprehensive Stability Analysis of Concentrated Emulsions and Dispersions

Matt Vanden Eynden
Formulaction

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Development of stable emulsions is critical for formulation chemists who desire to have a stable, well-dispersed product that can also exhibit a desired shelf-life and avoid destabilization phenomena that will inhibit transfers between storage vessels. New materials and regulations are leading chemists to develop new formulas to meet these criteria. Visual analysis of these emulsions can be time-consuming and objective causing extensive project times and qualitative results, and other optical techniques involve disturbing or diluting the samples.

We present here a technique based on Multiple Light Scattering (MLS) to fulfill this purpose. Destabilization phenomena such as sedimentation, creaming, clarification and flocculation can be identified and quantified much fast than standard visual analysis. Such data can accelerate project timelines and provide critical data in order to optimize a formulation. It has proven to be a useful technique to characterize the dispersion state of colloidal samples and the mean diameter of particles in concentrated dispersions. Where other optical techniques ask a very high dilution and risk to denature the sample, this technique has the advantage to analyze in one click, without sample preparation or dilution, concentrated suspensions.[/read]

10:30 - 11:00 am

 

Networking: Coffee Break

 

8.4

11:00 - 11:30 am

Effects of a Crosslinking Gradient on Material Properties of a Thin Film

Matthew Hancock
University of Kentucky

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Quantitative information regarding the degree of polymerization of thin films with ultraviolet light is crucial to estimate material properties. SR-399 (dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate) is a multifunctional, fast cure, low skin irritant monomer with abrasion resistance and good flexibility. Photopolymerization from one surface of a film creates a gradient through the part. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy can measure carbon-carbon double bond consumption, leading to estimate the degree of crosslinking. The carbon-carbon double bond composition is expected to be a function of film depth, light intensity, and photoinitiator concentration. Mechanical properties can be obtained from nanoindentation measurements along the film depth. Preliminary nanoindentation experiments have confirmed the presence of a crosslinking gradient, due to deviations in the Young’s modulus, as a function of film depth and ultraviolet light intensity. This is one of the first studies linking thin film polymeric morphology to physical performance, which is crucial when applying the technology for part synthesis.[/read]

8.5

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Surface and Interfacial Interactions of Silane Coatings on Paper Substrates

Brenda Hutton-Prager
University of Mississippi

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A mixture of vinyltrimethylsilane and its associated siloxane can be polymerized ‘in-situ’ and cured over cellulose substrates to produce a hydrophobic film. The rate of hydrophobic development of this film can be monitored to discern the surface and interfacial interactions responsible for the change in hydrophobicity.

Several studies were conducted in which 7 wt% solutions in n-heptane were roll-coated onto Whatman 1 cellulose substrates, and subsequently cured at 40 and 110oC. FTIR measurements were taken at various times during curing, as were contact angle measurements. Bond development was completed well before the onset of surface hydrophobicity at both curing temperatures, and superhydrophobicity was also observed with the high temperature case. Hydrophobic development appeared to be more strongly influenced by surface topology than bond development, and this was confirmed with SEM studies that showed the appearance of 300 nm-size polysiloxane beads on the fiber surface. Cassie-Baxter behavior was confirmed with both roughness and film porosity contributing to hydrophobicity under certain circumstances. Deformation studies in the form of mechanical folding action were performed on fully-cured and developed hydrophobic films at both temperatures. Results showed decreased hydrophobic performance at 40oC prepared samples, associated with a reduction in vibrational activity of the surface hydrophobic groups. At 110oC, hydrophobic performance was largely maintained despite similar damage to the chemical bonding, and it is thought that higher levels of covalent bonding to the substrate may have been responsible. Although the hydrophobic surface requires roughness and porosity to fully form, the chemical hydrophobicity created from polymerization also ultimately contributes to the overall hydrophobicity observed.

Studies currently in progress will compare different silanes with additional hydrophobic content to investigate more thoroughly the potentially competing effects of chemical hydrophobicity and mechanical roughness. Also planned are the introduction of pigment particles into the film to investigate additional interfacial and surface interactions.[/read]

8.6

12:00 - 12:30 PM

Improving Surfactant Leaching of Architectural Latex and Paint Formulations

Robert Sandoval
EPS

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Improving the exterior durability of acrylic latex binders is one route to enhance the durability of a finished architectural paint. In addition to the paint formula, the binder can strongly impact exterior properties such as the dirt pickup resistance and surfactant leaching. Surfactant leaching occurs when freshly coated paints leach water-soluble components under humid drying conditions, leaving an undesirable residue and appearance on the surface of the dried coating. Evaluating paints for surfactant leaching is challenging due to the qualitative nature of most tests (i.e., visual observation and rating) or lack of precision (i.e., determination of surfactant leaching by weight). A newly developed analytical method that utilizes the sensitivity of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) is able to quantify the extent of surfactant leaching between samples, providing higher resolution and granularity than simply by visual observation or by weight. Four resin composition factors (3 of which that are considered hydrophobic resin composition factors) were examined to look at the impact on surfactant leaching and dirt pickup resistance. Surprisingly, an experimental resin in the design with high levels of the 3 hydrophobic factors does not result in the best performance for surfactant leaching. Statistical modeling of the analytical test method identified main and interaction terms that drive surfactant leaching and showed a non-intuitive relationship between the factors, resulting in a determination coefficient (Rsquared) of 0.88 for the model. Comparatively, an analysis of the qualitative (visual) testing resulted in a poor statistical model (Rsquared = 0.38) that does not identify all active terms. In addition to the binder composition, the analytical method also allows for screening of paint formulation variables to determine quantitatively the active factors impacting surfactant leaching. Other performance properties were also analyzed in the context of the design, including dirt pickup resistance, tannin stain blocking, and performance on highly alkaline substrates (efflorescence), resulting in an optimized resin composition with a strong balance of exterior performance properties.[/read]

12:30 - 2:00 pm

 

Networking: Conference Lunch

 

April 10, 2018
Tuesday Afternoon Schedule

Session 9:  Architectural Coatings II

Chair: Kent Young
Sherwin Williams

9.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Hollow thermoplastic microspheres in elastomeric cool roof coatings

Olaf Sandin
Akzo Nobel Pulp & Performance Chemicals

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Hollow ultra low density thermoplastic microspheres can be used as filler in elastomeric waterproof coatings to improve a number of important properties of the coatings. Hollow microspheres help reflect solar radiation and reduce the temperature of the coating. The mechanism for the reflection is described in this paper and is compared with the mechanism for reflection by pigment particles like TiO2. Results from solar reflection measurements show that the microsphere filled coating system reflects solar radiation of all incoming wavelengths, which is different from the way TiO2 reflects light. The number of reflecting units is still important for the total solar reflection, and suggests that the average size of the microspheres should be as little as possible. Like most other filler, hollow low density microspheres can be used in combination with pigments.

Another important property of elastomeric roof coatings is the elasticity. When inorganic fillers are exchanged for resilient thermoplastic hollow microspheres, the elasticity is improved. The softer character of the coating is good but inherently these types of soft coatings face a challenge regarding dirt pick-up resistence. This paper presents new scientific data showing that high elasticity can be combined with dirt pick-up resistance in a cost efficient manner. Without sacrifying total solar reflectance! The paper will elaborate on the mechanisms of this new, high performing system.[/read]

9.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Thermochromic Additives Applied to Waterbased Acrylic Coating

Kevin Arnaud
Université Laval

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IR-reflective pigments are design to reduce heat building in coatings by reflecting near infrared (NIR) spectrum. Highly effective at high temperature, NIR reflection can be counterproductive in cold climate, when coating temperature decreases below 30°C. Thermochromic additives are scientific and technical advancement developed to respond to this as a smart material. Acting as a reflective pigment above 30°C, or another tunable temperature, the thermochromic additive admit a state change below 30°C and adjust its properties to transmit NIR spectrum.

Different thermochromic additives have been prepared; all based on Vanadium dioxide (VO2) chemistry. For the first time, a complete study is currently conducted through water-based acrylic coating example. Several properties, such as optical transmission, total solar reflectance (TSR), color measurement and resistance to weathering are currently or planned to be investigated.[/read]

9.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Develop Exceptional Quality Arcitectural Coatings with Novel Silicone Additives

Yujie Lu
The Dow Chemical Company

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With a distinct combination of hydrophobicity, mechanical properties and weatherability, silicones have been extensively adopted by both architectural and industrial coatings. Silicones offer improvements in many aspects, including foam control, mar resistance and water resistance. However, the application of traditional silicone technology has been limited by issues with compatibility and recoatability. Our silicone products based on breakthrough silicone polyether technology do not only allow formulators to utilize silicone material with minimal concerns, but deliver stretch performance targets beyond the capability of traditional silicone additives. This paper presents the excellent performance of these often multi-functional silicone additives in formulations. Examples of performance advantages include novel defoamers to improve dirt pick up resistance/ corrosion resistance over conventional defoamers, and a surface leveling additive to offer step-change on surface smoothness and applied hide. In addition, silicone wetting additives and hydrophobic additives will be also discussed.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

Networking: Coffee Break

9.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Emulsion polymerization of hydrophobic monomers

Michael O'Shaughnessy
Bruggemann Chemical

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The process of emulsion polymerization is complex. Researchers take advantage of this complexity to develop new and novel products. Carboxylic acid based monomers and other polymerizable hydrophilic monomers are used by developers to obtain stable emulsions, but they can bring unwanted water sensitivity to the film. One method of offsetting this water sensitivity is through the use of hydrophobic monomers. Unfortunately, due to their hydrophobicity and reactivity ratios these monomers can be difficult to convert, especially as their concentration decreases during the polymerization. This poor conversion causes an increase in odor and VOC which is problematic in the final coating.

It is well known that hydrophobic, nonionic oxidizers such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide are much more effective at scavenging free hydrophobic monomers than the more hydrophilic ionic persulfate oxidizers. A study was undertaken to determine advantages of employing a reducer with higher organic content, in conjunction with an oxidizer having the same characteristic with regards reduction of residual monomers.

In order to provide new tools for researchers to improve monomer reduction, a series of latexes were produced with a high concentration of hydrophobic monomers utilizing both thermal and redox systems. These initiator systems were also varied as a function of hydrophobicity. Residual monomers were measured at various times during the polymerization process to determine effectiveness of each system. The various latexes were then characterized to allow a comparison of their physical properties and key performance properties.[/read]

9.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Role of Polymeric Hollow Sphere Pigments in Abrasion Resistance

Adam Cummings
BASF

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Polymeric Opacifiers (POs) are spherical hollow pigments commonly used in architectural coatings to either provide enhanced opacity to a coating or as a partial supplement for inorganic white pigments, such as TiO2. However, it is commonly known in the industry that the incorporation of POs can degrade a coating’s ability to resist visible marring or burnishing of the paint surface. This constraint limits paint manufacturers’ latitude to formulate with POs.

BASF has employed microscopy to help uncover fundamental reasons for the observed decrease in surface abrasion resistance in the presence of POs. The data indicates that surface degradation is most likely due to weak interfacial interactions between the POs and the paint matrix. Our hypothesis is that this weak interfacial interaction causes the POs to act more like voids in the matrix decreasing the overall film integrity of the paint, thus making it more susceptible to abrasion defects. In this paper, we present mechanical and analytical data to support our hypothesis. In addition, we present formulation approaches to improve burnish resistance.[/read]

9.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Novel Urethane Associative Thickeners for Waterborne Coatings Based on Hydrophilic Binders

Chitra Jeurkar
Elementis

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Thickeners are included in coating formulations to give specific rheological properties. A coating’s rheology influences its properties during manufacture, storage, and application. Also, choice of thickener influences coatings dried film performance.

Two types of thickeners are available to waterborne coatings – Non Associative and Associative.

Both class of thickeners aid coating’s manufacturing and storage properties. However, they differ in application and in the final dried film properties.

Non associative thickeners are Cellulosic and Acrylic based. These coatings have poor application properties.

Associative thickeners are available in three categories to waterborne coatings –Hydrophobically Modified – Cellulosic (HMHEC), Acrylic (HASE) and Urethane (NiSAT) thickeners.

Urethane thickeners offer waterborne coatings excellent application and overall dried film performance property outperforming both HMHEC and HASE thickeners.

Performance of Urethane associative thickeners has usually been a compromise of positive and negative features. For example, it associates effectively with hydrophobic binders. However, it faces challenges when used with hydrophilic binders.

Our recent advances in Urethane thickener technology have allowed for a significant step forward in performance of waterborne coatings based on hydrophilic binders. This presentation will show how advances in Urethane thickener technology are now providing architectural waterborne coatings based on hydrophilic binders with a) optimal thickening efficiency and b) superior application and dried film performance properties.[/read]

Session 10:  Polyurethanes II

Chair: Alex Kruglov
Sherwin Williams

10.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Highly Resistant Polyurethane Dispersions for High-Performance Coatings

Mark Gilbert
Alberdingk Boley

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polyurethane resins are durable materials effective at protecting a wide variety of substrates in both interior and exterior environments. While solventborne types have dominated the market for many years, increasing environmental regulations and new developments have led to waterborne products with robust performance, including good chemical resistance and mechanical properties. Such performance attributes have enabled the use of these materials as graffiti resistant coatings. The anti-graffiti market continues to grow annually in response to increasing vandalism. Billions of dollars are spent each year as companies attempt to protect their property. Anti-graffiti coatings are divided into two classes: temporary and permanent. Polyurethane dispersions (PUDs) classify as permanent systems that produce a protective surface that provides a barrier to paint and other staining while also resisting cleaning chemicals. Anti-graffiti coatings are also required to have excellent exterior durability, good adhesion to masonry substrates and high moisture vapor permeability. Experimental polyurethane dispersions have recently been developed to achieve the highest chemical resistance in a one component system. These products have been tested according to the ASTM standard for Graffiti resistance and produced exceptional results without the use of surface energy modifiers or external crosslinkers. Performance has also been benchmarked against several commercial standards which includes different resin technologies. Highly resistant and durable coatings have been produced showing promise for easy to clean surfaces. Such highly resistant materials can be useful in other markets as well. Further work has explored the application of these products in market areas such as interior automotive.[/read]

10.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

1K PUR Dispersion with Comparable Performance to 2K Waterborne Coating

Makoto Nakao
Covestro

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Two component waterborne polyurethane coatings have been recognized as coatings with excellent performance properties and used in a wide variety of applications. However, they require the introduction of a curing agent as a second component in order to provide the crosslinking needed to enhance coating performance. Several challenges for two component waterborne coatings are well known, including limited pot life, increased waste, potential risk for mixing failure and additional process steps before application. Therefore, in certain markets, paint formulators continue to look for one component waterborne coatings that perform comparable to two component waterborne coatings; for example, coatings for the residential vinyl windows market. Vinyl windows represent more than 70% of windows sold into the USA residential window market and nearly all of them are white in color. Consumers are demanding more color options besides just white and to meet that demand, window manufacturers are painting more and more windows today. Currently two component waterborne coatings are the market standard, but window manufacturers and applicators are seeking high performance one component waterborne coatings that are easy to apply and provide comparable performance to the two component waterborne coatings being used today. This paper discusses the performance properties, as defined in American Architectural Manufacturers Association 615-17 specification, of a newly developed one component polyurethane dispersion that demonstrates comparable performance properties to two component waterborne coatings used to paint residential vinyl windows in the market today.[/read]

10.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

New Low Viscosity Polyester Polyols for High Solids 2K Polyurethane Coating

Jeffrey Janos
Stepan Company

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Formulators are required to comply with increasingly stringent volatile organic compound (VOC) regulations and, at the same time, maintain the performance characteristics expected from the coating system. Traditionally, there have been three ways to reduce VOC’s in coatings: by moving toward waterborne formulations, making higher solid coatings, or using “exempt” solvents. Waterborne technology greatly reduces the VOC content, but commonly lags behind the performance of solvent borne coatings, while high solid systems are typically more expensive per gallon. Systems containing exempt solvents can only be used from a regulatory point of view in specific areas of the globe. In order to overcome these challenges, Stepan has developed a new set of polyester polyols with low room temperature viscosities that reduce VOC content in coating formulations and provide excellent coating characteristics. This paper demonstrates the use of these polyols in 2K polyurethane solvent borne low VOC systems and describes their performance characteristics in preventative maintenance and floor coatings.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

Networking: Coffee Break

10.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Development of Acrylic-Grafted Hybrid Polyurethane Dispersions

Diana Rodriguez
Eastern Michigan University

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polyurethane Dispersions (PUD) are known to offer high performance, especially in terms of their combination of toughness, abrasion resistance, flexibility and chemical resistance. However, their use has not been expanded to some applications due to high cost in comparison with other water-borne systems such as acrylic latex, which offer good performance at a considerably less cost. The need to reduce the cost of polyurethane dispersions has led the use of blending of Acrylic Latex (AC) and PUD in a coating package, but often it leads to films of lower quality, which is frequently attributed low compatibility between the two resin systems. However, the development of hybrid systems containing chemically bonded polymer structures is expected to lead to better compatibility between components. This study contemplates the synthesis of Polyurethane/acrylic hybrid dispersions using two different grafting techniques.

An NCO terminated pre-polymer was reacted with 50% of the stoichiometric amount of hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) to obtain a pre-polymer containing both NCO and acrylate functionality. This polymer has been used for the synthesis of acrylic/PUD hybrids dispersions by two methods – (a) Emulsion polymerization: The pre-polymer is neutralized, dispersed in water and chain-extended with ethylenediamine (EDA), resulting dispersion is used as a seed for conventional emulsion polymerization, with acrylic monomers. (b) Monomer mixing process: pre-polymer is mixed with acrylic monomers and free radical initiator and then is neutralized, dispersed in water and chain extended using EDA. Temperature is then raised to the initiation temperature, and radical polymerization of monomers, within the stabilized droplets, is carried out. The acrylic to urethane ratio was kept at 50:50 by weight in both processes.The grafting efficiency is tested by acrylic monomer depletion using Fourier transform infrared (FTRI), and by comparison of mechanical and chemical properties of the films. Samples also have been evaluated for their emulsion stability (particle size analysis and visual observation). The properties of hybrid dispersion will be compared with the straight acrylic emulsion, straight polyurethane dispersion, and corresponding physical blends.[/read]

10.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

A Novel Co-Polymerizable Benzotriazole UVA for Polyurethane Dispersion

Christopher Karwowski
Chitec Technology

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polyurethane dispersion (PUD), has received more and more attention in coatings due to its water-borne nature and excellent overall properties. PUD’s are also the top selection for exterior coatings applications in consideration of weathering stability. PUD's weathering stability can be further enhanced by adding UV absorbers to the PUD to increase UV stability and provide long term durability.

Among UVA absorbers, benzotriazole (BZT) based UVA’s as shown below, provide the best protection on TPU against UV light. BZT UVA is manufactured in either a solid or liquid state. Solid BZT’s are not suitable for PUD resins as there is no melting step in the PUD coating process.

Liquid BZT UVA is easily formulated into the PUD coating if there is a pre-emulsifying process prior to addition. However, pre-emulsion can sometimes be difficult with a sophisticated challenging formulation. Liquid BZT UVA has another significant drawback: lowering of the Tg point of PU coating and subsequently reducing the hardness. Chitec is proud to report a new way to add a high performance BZT UVA into PUD system by using a novel Reactable BTZ UVA.

Figure (1) demonstrates a glycol functionality as shown below. This reactive UVA can be easily co-polymerized into the PUD back-bone by using a standard PUD preparation process, therefore eliminating the emulsion process.

Please note Figure #1 Chemical Backbone Diagram was not able to transfer to this form. It can be supplied via Word File if needed.

(Figure 1) Chiguard® 5530 Hydrophilic BZT

Testing in a PUD system containing 1% of Figure 3 - (fully reactable BZT UVA) was compared with a PUD system containing 1% of Figure 1 - (a hydrophilic BZT) and additional testing with Figure 2 - (a hydrophobic BZT). All products were tested with and without hindered amine light stabilizers. Figure 3 showed significant improvement of photopermance, haze, hardness, and adhesion under ASTM G-154.

Please note Figure #2 Chemical Backbone Diagram was not able to transfer to this form. It can be supplied via Word File if needed.

(Figure 2) Chiguard® 5582 Hydrophobic BZT

Please note Figure #3 Chemical Backbone Diagram was not able to transfer to this form. It can be supplied via Word File if needed.

(Figure 3) Chiguard® R-455 Fully Reactable BZT

In this paper, the process to prepare Figure 3 will be outlined along with the performance comparison against other BZT type chemistries. Global registration status will be also be presented.[/read]

10.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Recent Developments in UV-Curable Waterborne Dispersions

Jonathan Shaw
Allnex

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The use of water borne (WB) UV polyurethane dispersions (UV PUDs) has been steadily increasing as low viscosity, sprayable coatings based on these materials can be made without using solvent or large amounts of diluents. UV PUDs combine the ease of use of conventional WB resins with the chemical, stain and high scratch resistance of crosslinked UV systems. Initially used in coatings for wood or resilient flooring, UV PUDs are being modified for use in other applications. This talk will briefly review the structure and properties of the UV-PUDs used for wood coatings and then highlight the development of several new UV PUDs that have been tailored for use in newer markets such as digital inks for the packaging market (including satisfying the regulatory requirements) as well as hardcoats for plastics, including cosmetic packaging.[/read]

Session 11:  Epoxy Coatings

Chair: Remi Briand
Tnemec

11.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

New Waterborne Systems Bring Fast Return-to-Service & Excellent Aesthetics

Shiying Zheng
Evonik

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Coating industry across all markets from construction to marine to electronics is constantly facing the challenges from regulatory agencies and consumers. These challenges include meeting more stringent emission requirement and fulfilling the need to reduce process time in order to improve productivity and costs while maintaining high coating performance. Technology advancements equipped the industry with new waterborne epoxy systems that deliver fast cure speed, improved coating robustness and better aesthetics over the service life. Thanks to the low volatile organic content (VOC) and excellent coating properties, waterborne epoxy coatings have become a commercially important technology and gained wide acceptance as environmentally friendly alternatives for solvent borne and solvent free epoxy systems.

This paper will highlight the development of a new waterborne epoxy curing agent based on a novel amine technology. The paper will also discuss the key advantages of the new waterborne epoxy system for civil engineering application. This new system provides an extremely fast cure speed even under adverse condition such as low temperature and high humidity, and superior adhesion to substrates when used as a primer, in particularly on damp concrete. It also provides excellent surface aesthetics when used as a topcoat. This fast cure system enables coating formulators to design new coating concepts, such as a 1-day floor system, consisting of a primer and topcoat that could be applied on the same day and deliver walk-on readiness the next morning.[/read]

11.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Novel Waterborne Epoxy Systems for Anticorrosive and 2K Zinc-Rich Primers

Wenjun Mi
Olin Epoxy

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In January 2015, China’s government implemented new regulations that limit the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the coating processes. Many industries are impacted including those that require heavy duty performance such as freight container, construction steel, and heavy machinery amongst others. Solutions being considered to address the low VOC challenge include the use of Waterborne coatings systems. Formulators face a number of challenges in converting solvent-borne formulations to waterborne formulations while retaining the performance characteristics of traditional systems. Many heavy duty Epoxy systems rely on three-layer systems; a Zinc (Zn) rich or an anticorrosive Epoxy primer, followed by an Epoxy mid-coat, followed by a top coat. Both primer options pose challenges for low VOC formulations. The inherent challenge of dispersing Zn in waterborne dispersions have made three-component (3K) systems a common solution. However, this has drawbacks such as ease of use in the field and consistent quality of the final product. Traditional anticorrosive waterborne primer systems use VOC in the form of co-solvents to enable required leveling for film formation, limiting the reduction in total VOC.

In this paper Olin Epoxy will present two low VOC waterborne Epoxy primer systems designed to enable solvent-borne performance for metal protection in both Zn rich 2K waterborne formulations and zero VOC anticorrosive Epoxy waterborne formulations, thus addressing the inherent challenges of traditional waterborne solutions. Comparative physical properties and performance benchmark data will be shared.[/read]

11.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

A New Waterborne Acrylic-Epoxy Hybrid Polymer for Metal Protection

Leo Procopio
The Dow Chemical Company

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Epoxy coatings are often used in applications over metal substrates due to their excellent performance properties, including corrosion resistance and chemical/solvent resistance. Inadequate properties of epoxy chemistry often include poor UV light durability and brittleness, and epoxy coatings often have poor gloss/color retention and resistance to chalking on exterior exposure as well as poor flexibility and impact resistance. Many epoxy coatings also contain solvents which contribute to high volatile organic content (VOC) levels. Relative to solventborne versions, waterborne epoxy coatings can often be formulated to lower VOC, but exterior durability and flexibility still remain a challenge. Combining excellent corrosion protection and chemical/solvent resistance with exterior durability, flexibility and low VOC in a coating based on epoxy chemistry is not an easy target. This paper will describe a new waterborne acrylic-epoxy hybrid polymer that facilitates formulation of two-component metal primers and direct-to-metal (DTM) finishes with this important balance of properties. The system has versatility in that the acrylic-epoxy hybrid polymer can be cured with either traditional waterborne amine hardeners or with acid-functional acrylic hardeners. Performance of the waterborne acrylic-epoxy hybrid technology in gloss DTM finishes and anticorrosive primers will be described, along with comparisons to traditional waterborne and solventborne epoxy coatings.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

 

Networking: Coffee Break

 

11.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Novel Metal-Free Catalysts for Epoxy-Carboxy Coatings

Ravi Ravichandran
King Industries

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A new class of metal free catalysts has been developed that promotes the crosslinking reaction of epoxy functional polymers with carboxyl functional compounds and polymers. These catalysts are particularly effective at much lower cure temperatures, provide stable single package formulations and improved resistance properties. In addition, unlike amine based compounds, these catalysts do not yellow during cure or on over bake.[/read]

11.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

Polyamine Curing Agents Meeting the Industry Need for Enhanced Productivity

Michael Cook
Evonik

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In the challenging world of industrial, protective and marine coatings, two component epoxy systems are established as the benchmark technologies due to the combined offerings of excellent corrosion protection while being compliant with regional VOC standards. Today, productivity has emerged as a major driver and innovation is focused on developing epoxy coatings which have greater application versatility while providing enhanced performance properties, such as dry speed, rapid recoat and through cure. For Marine and Protective, the need is for faster cure and blush resistant coatings when applied under adverse, low temperatures conditions. In the OEM sector, the wet-on wet application process means there is a requirement for epoxy systems to provide rapid overcoatability with polyureathane and/or polyaspartic top coats within minutes after initial application of the primer. In the OEM sector the drivers are to increase productivity with faster application of multiple layers coupled with lower bake temperatures which can provide energy savings.

This paper will focus on the performance attributes of a novel polycyclic- aliphatic amine and its use in the development of new epoxy curing agents designed for to provide added value in the above markets. The supporting data includes the functional properties; thermal analysis, Glass transition (Tg), IR cure profile, confirming the rapid through cure and cross-linking capabilities in epoxy systems. In addition a review of model coating formulations and their key performance attributes, including the rapid recoat times, improved intercoat adhesion, excellent corrosion protection properties will be discussed.[/read]

11.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Improving the Weathering of Epoxy Based Coatings

Mouhcine Kanouni
Clariant Plastics & Coatings

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The weathering of epoxy based coating is known to be a challenge for several applications such as flooring, protective coatings and windmills. In this study, Azelis and Clariant cooperated to develop the next generation of light stabilizers additives that would enhance the weathering of epoxy coatings. The results of the study to be presented will include effect of light stabilizers additives on epoxy coating gel time, hardness, visual appearance as well as weathering performance.[/read]

Session 12:  Measuring, Testing & Automation

Chair: Sharon Szamboti Kraus
The Dow Chemical Company

12.1

2:00 - 2:30 pm

Broad Thermal Gradient Testing ISO 2812-5 Based

Nico Frankhuizen, TQC

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Thermal resistance to staining is tested by use of ISO 2812-5. The standard originating from 2007 is based in 1970’s equipment and early 21st century automotive coatings. Much has changed. Modern applications as super yacht coating systems, mobile phones, dashboard coatings and thermal chromatic applications all require new additional tests. The chemical composition and type of pollutants have changed together with visual rating effect. Modern coating systems require a new approach to thermal testing and chemical resistance. This paper discusses the additional requirements for new coatings and test procedures. Illustrating broad application of a standard that originated just in the car industry.[/read]

12.2

2:30 - 3:00 pm

Contact Based Nondestructive Testing (NDT) at height With Aerial Robotics (Drone)

Robert Dahlstrom
Apellix

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

To take Nondestructive Testing (DNT) measurements at height, currently one needs to utilize a lift, scaffolding, ladders or other solutions to reach areas on ships, bridges, aboveground storage tanks, flare stacks and other Infrastructure and Industrial sites. This is both dangerous, due to the possibility of falls, and time consuming.

Utilizing an aerial robotics platform for NDT measurements such as Dry Film Thickness (DFT) allows workers to remain safely on the ground to take measurements. Further, since there is no need to move a lift, scaffolding or ladders or for the person taking the DFT readings to move from their current position, the DFT measurement process is faster in addition to being safer.

This is a new and novel application utilizing existing technologies (DFT readers, drones, etc.) with a system of complex integrations that allows for a better application of science. The system has the potential to improve the inspection, testing and data collection aspects of coated assets, in part, by making the DFT measurement “process” easier and safer thus allowing for more frequent measurements and/or a larger quantity of measurement samples.

With an easier, faster, and safer method to collect DFT measurements from locations of height we can expand the science of coating thickness measurements by collecting data from locations where data was either inaccessible or difficult to obtain (access issues, safety considerations, etc.). The technology is patented and video will be shown of the system wherein the drone flies up to a structure with a metal sub-straight, then under full autonomous software control, touches a DFT measurement probe to the target and records the measurement data compliant with SSPC-PA2 standards. The session will make participants aware of this new technology as well as provide information as to its efficacy, limitations and operational requirements.[/read]

12.3

3:00 - 3:30 PM

Novel Applications of Confocal Microscopy Techniques in Coatings Research

Wenjun Wu
Arkema

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy are complementary techniques and the combination of the two can provide the most complete information regarding the distributions of different coatings ingredients, as well as the fate and the impact of liquids or particulates that come in contact with the dried coating films. Confocal Raman microscopes, for example, combine the sensitivity and specificity of spectroscopy and are thus powerful, non-destructive analytical tools for mapping relative spatial locations of various chemical species in heterogeneous systems like coating films.

This paper reports new applications of two confocal microscopy techniques in coatings research: 1) to detect low levels of surfactants leached out of dry paint films; 2) to determine the location of paint additives to confirm either uniform spatial distribution or surface segregation; 3) to semi-quantitatively characterize adsorption, penetration and removal of liquid stains that contain an inherently fluorescent compound. Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) are employed to analyze and solve some coatings common problems such as surfactant leaching, stain resistance, and washability. The usefulness and advantages of these confocal techniques are demonstrated by the examples given in this paper.[/read]

3:30 - 4:00 PM

Networking: Coffee Break

12.4

4:00 - 4:30 PM

Influence of the Mechanical Properties of Clearcoats on Scratch Resistance

Kyle Price
Axalta Coating Systems

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

A common goal of clearcoat manufacturers is to increase the resistance to scratch and mar events; however, characterizing this type of damage can be challenging. Sophisticated nano and micro scratch techniques have been developed that have the ability to accurately characterize the mechanical performance of coating surface. Ultimately, one needs to relate differences in scratch performance to basic mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the film. In this work, various clearcoat formulations and processing conditions were characterized using advanced nano scratch techniques to measure scratch and mar performance. Additionally, the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the films were characterized including tensile properties, indentation hardness, dynamic moduli, and glass transition temperature. This study explores how a coating’s resistance to scratch and mar damage is influenced by the mechanical properties of the film via coating chemistry or application process as well as how the inherent parameters of the scratch test may influence the measured results.[/read]

12.5

4:30 - 5:00 PM

High Throughput Experimentation – A Faster Path to Innovation and Success

Kevin Henderson
The Dow Chemical Company

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Achieving a balance of desired paint performance characteristics can be challenging, resource-intensive, and time-consuming to paint manufacturers. The Dow Chemical Company has developed high throughput methodologies to facilitate the quick screening of large libraries of coatings samples, shortening the innovation timeline for new technologies and increasing the compositional breadth for formulating products to address market needs. Here we address the development and advantages of recent high throughput methods and their use toward achieving designated performance targets and understanding market landscapes. Specific examples include methods that address MPI specifications and case studies that highlight benefits of high throughput over traditional laboratory approaches.[/read]

12.6

5:00 - 5:30 PM

Robots Reading Recipes: A Semantic Framework for Coatings Science

Erik Sapper
California Polytechnic State University

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Natural language processing tools are data workflows created using software and machine learning models. These tools are used to extract structured, semantic information from English text, and have been used to create online chatbots and to quickly assess sentiment about a product or brand on social media platforms. Natural language processing and text mining tools have not been fully leveraged in the chemical sciences, and certainly not in the domain of coatings science and engineering. Here, we propose a rules-based and template-assisted framework for the semantic recording and delivery of coatings formulation information. This framework may be combined with text mining and natural language processing tools in order to extract chemical entity information, as well as formulation relationships between those entities. The resulting information is automatically ‘tidy’ and ready for data mining and modeling activities, without the need for arduous spreadsheet data entry and manipulation. The proposed framework allows for easy dissemination of formulation information, be it in trade journals, technical data sheets, peer-reviewed publications, or within or between industrial organizations and laboratories. The objective is to transform the ubiquitous formulation sheet—the format of which varies from organization to organization—into a simple, prose-based format which is simultaneously information dense as well as reader friendly, to both human and robot readers. The proposed framework has the capability to turn ‘information archeology’ into an automated process, eventually leading to automated and machine-led analysis and interpretation of scientific results related to coating formulation and performance. Adopting a standard and widespread approach to formulation information fosters scientific reproducibility, open innovation, and standardization of reporting, as well as easy, reliable, and long-lasting access to data.[/read]

April 11, 2018
Wednesday Morning Schedule
(Sessions begin after the Mattiello Lecture & Fun Run)

Session 13:  Protective Coatings

Chair: Terri Carson
Alberdingk-Boley

13.1

9:30 - 10:00 am

A versatile, High-Performance Polyol Chemistry for Broad Industrial Market Use

Jamie Dziczkowski
Eastman Chemical Company

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polyester polyol chemistry has been used extensively as a binder option in high performance industrial coatings applications for decades. Limitations of traditional polyester technology, such as weathering and chemical resistance have restricted its use to a co-binder due to the high level of performance requirements associated with these markets. Translating the use of a specialty monomer from copolyesters for thermoplastic applications, chemists at Eastman have evaluated the effectiveness of a unique glycol molecule as a building block in copolyester coatings resins targeted for use in automotive coatings, metal packaging applications for food cans, and industrial applications like the agricultural and construction segment. Proven to enhance the hydrolytic stability and offer a balance of flexibility and hardness, the specialty polyol is enabling distinctive binder properties to address ever-changing global coatings needs. Fulfilling performance targets across very diverse fitness for use criterion, this paper capitalizes on the versatility of the specialty polyol platform of resins. Through performance comparisons to next best alternative technologies, the improved durability will highlight the advantage of this next generation of polyol chemistry.[/read]

13.2

10:00 - 10:30 am

Maximizing the Performance of Low-VOC Acrylic Metal Coatings

Allen Bulick
EPS

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

As 1K direct to metal (DTM) coatings have transitioned into waterborne acrylic formulations to lower volatile organic content (VOC), certain sacrifices in performance, particularly corrosion resistance, had to be made. The features that make acrylics colloidally stable in water, e.g. acidic functional groups and/or surfactants, can work against their ability to deliver suitable corrosion resistance. Additionally, formulation additives designed for waterborne systems such as dispersants and wetting agents often further increase the overall hydrophilicity of the coating. Every polymer responds differently to selected additive packages so any resin designed for metal protection must be combined with an optimized formulation to maximize performance. To address the performance gaps of legacy waterborne acrylics, a novel polymer capable of <50g/L VOC formulations has been developed with exceptional corrosion resistance at film builds as low as 1mil dry film thickness (DFT). Formulation variables such as dispersants, wetting agents, and pigments were also systematically evaluated. The performance of low VOC DTM systems and the impact of formulation choices will be discussed with both empirical and structure/property descriptions.[/read]

13.3

10:30 - 11:00 am

Discover the Advancement of Polysilazane in Coatings Applications

Wei Liu
EMD Performance Materials

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polysilazanes are polymers which silicon and nitrogen atoms alternate to form the basic backbone. Although the chemistry and applications characteristics have been recognized for a long time, there are only a few products introduced into the market place due to relatively high cost of development work.

This article will use the examples of formulations and applications to discuss an advancement in silicon polymer technology that is proprietary to EMD Performance Materials. The inorganic and organopolysilazane based technology provides an entirely new class of coating binders which can result an excellent protection properties, such as excellent scratch, impact and abrasion resistance as well as chemical and corrosion resistance.[/read]

11:00 - 11:30 am

Networking: Coffee Break

13.4

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

New Water-Based Binder for Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Alan Fream
Omnova Solutions

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

In recent years, thin film intumescent coatings have become the preferred choice for the protection of structural steel because of their ability to provide cost-effective passive fire protection solution, whilst at the same time maintaining the aesthetic qualities of the steel, which is being demanded by more and more architects and engineers.

Over the years, our company has developed multiple generations of solvent borne resins that have proven their efficiency in the production of durable and effective solvent-borne reactive fire protection coatings because of their unique manufacturing process and polymer composition and morphology. Based on the same chemistry and expertise, we have developed a new water-based technology to meet fire resistance requirements of best-in-class products.

This paper describe the development of this technology allowing to achieve superior water resistance, compared to current existing water-based products when tested according to durability requirements of ETAG 018 / EN 16623.[/read]

13.5

12:00 - 12:30 pm

100% Solids Ambient-Cure Liquid Pipe Coating with Excellent Cathodic Disbondment Results

Yong Zhang
Olin Epoxy

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Epoxy coatings have long been the work horse for Maintenance and Protective Coatings (M&PC) due to their excellent corrosion resistance, excellent heat and chemical resistance, good mechanical properties as well as excellent adhesion to various substrates. The epoxy resins are typically based on bisphenol A diglycidyl either (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl either, and epoxy phenol novolacs; and they are usually very viscous in nature and therefore require a high volume of solvent to reduce the viscosity for easier application. There is a strong desire among participants throughout the M&PC value chain to reduce the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as the human health impact of these coatings. One hundred percent solids coatings are one route to that objective.

Olin Epoxy has designed a 100% solids formulated epoxy and hardener system based on this approach. This paper documents the performance of this system against a well-known commercial benchmark for external pipe coating applications. Fully pigmented 2K liquid pipe coating formulas will be described and modifications of the formula to meet different volume mixing ratios will also be discussed. Various performance aspects of experimental and commercial benchmarks will be compared, including pot life, Konig hardness, dry time, impact resistance, and cathodic disbondment (CD) at elevated temperatures. The range of conditions under which this high solids system can be applied and good performance achieved will also be summarized.[/read]

13.6

12:30 - 1:00 pm

A New Epoxy-Siloxane Hybrid Resin for Industrial Coatings

Rebekkah Lively
Hexion

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Protective coatings formulated with a new epoxy polysiloxane hybrid resin demonstrate properties not easily matched by traditional coatings technologies. Beyond providing lower viscosity and easier handling, the new hybrid resin can be formulated into lower VOC, polysiloxane coatings with higher chemical resistance (even at low curing agent dosages), excellent gloss and color retention after accelerated UV testing, and even superior cleanability for some specialty coatings markets. Thermal testing indicates that the new hybrid resin has potential application for temperature-resistant coatings. The performance of this new epoxy polysiloxane hybrid resin will be demonstrated with starting point formulations for a high gloss white enamel, two different clear coats, and other formulations intended for specialty applications.[/read]

1:00 pm

End of Conference and Lunch on the Show Floor

Session 14:  Novel Materials

Chair: Kevin Lassila
Altana

14.1

9:30 - 10:00 am

New Industrial Minerals from Paint Waste Through Gasification Process

Christopher Surbrook
Elpis Technologies

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This paper will discuss a commercially viable, sustainable, industrial mineral derived from recycled paint waste. Using pyrolysis under specific processing conditions, recovered paint scrap is first converted into gas and used as energy. This process then creates an ash cake from the inorganic materials present in the original paint. The ash is mostly a combination of titanium dioxide and silicate minerals that once milled create a useful industrial mineral. The process currently generates approximately 20% ash byproduct by weight of initial paint scrap. With approximately 12 million pounds of post-industrial paint waste and approximately another 29 million pounds of post-consumer paint waste being landfilled in the US annually, this produces a new stream of about 4000 tons of sustainable industrial minerals. Initially, the ash is being developed as reinforcing filler for thermoplastics. One application being evaluated for these filled plastics is the production of new paint cans. However, after further refining and removing the carbon from the ash has shown that it can also be used back into industrial paints. Streams of scrap that have been evaluated for recycling so far include paint booth overspray collection during the manufacture of automobiles, and consolidated, post-consumer architectural coatings.[/read]

14.2

10:00 - 10:30 am

New Dicyclopentadien-Based Acrylic Resins

Hui Yu
New Functional Polymers

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) is a low cost raw material in polymer industry. To develop DCPD new application we have invented a new synthesis methods to produce DCPD based acrylic resins. The DCPD based acrylic resins contain bridged bicyclic skeleton, which is different with traditional linear or cyclic aliphatic and aromatic structure and show a different application properties such as higher glass transition temperature; lower UV absorption; lower viscosity. These new DCPD based acrylic resins will be an alternative raw material for coating production and will increase DCPD application for low cost coating resins. In this report the synthesis process, properties and application of DCPD based acrylic resins will be presented.[/read]

14.3

10:30 - 11:00 am

Enhanced Technology for Electrostatic Spray on Nonconductive Substrates

Atman Fozdar
Chemical Dynamics

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

With the recent advances in the formulation of powder coatings, it's quite possible to formulate powder coatings that apply to temperature sensitive surfaces and cure at low temperatures using IR or UV cure. However, the challenge still remains with the electrostatic application of powder and liquid coatings that enable acceptable adhesion to non-traditional substrates (MDF, plastics and composites, glass, ceramic etc.) and achieve good transfer efficiency. Insufficient and/or nonuniform surface treatment of these substrates prior to application results in a non-uniform finish, multiple film defects and poor transfer efficiency.

Our research has led to the development of rapid drying conductive adhesion promoters (CAP’s) with improved adhesion of powder and liquid coatings to nonconductive substrates such as ABS, Polycarbonate, Noryl GTX, SMC and Polyolefinics etc.; while at the same time improving transfer efficiency by dissipating static charge. The ability of our CAP technology to dry quickly permits application in a continuous/conveyorized production line followed by the application and curing of powder and liquid coatings. The use of CAP’s in this process eliminates the need for preheating, plasma treatment and chemical etching of plastic substrates while improving both film appearance and application efficiency. UV curable as well as LTC (low temperature cure) powder and liquid coatings can now be applied uniformly even in recess areas/faraday cage areas. This patent pending technology utilizes novel conductive materials in conjunction with a polymeric adhesion promoter and at the same time improves flexibility and interfacial adhesion along with anti-static properties.

Other treatments used to enhance surface conductivity utilize quaternary ammonium salts dispersions (QAS) which render the coated substrate conductive, but moisture sensitive as the QAS conductive treatment are water sensitive and migratory. Lastly QAS technology does not enhance adhesion and flexibility.[/read]

11:00 - 11:30 am

Networking: Coffee Break

14.4

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Next Generation of Thickeners in Industrial Coatings & Construction Systems

James Heck
Elementis

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The rheological properties of an industrial coating, adhesive or sealant are vital to its success. A well formulated industrial coating, adhesive or sealant has balanced rheological properties, easy but controlled application, good sag or slump resistance and storage stability. The thickeners incorporated in the coating, adhesive or sealant formulations provide the manufacturers the ability to design the rheological characteristics they need for a specific end use.

Organic thixotropes are castor oil or polyamide based materials that are especially useful in systems such as industrial coatings, construction sealants, caulks, adhesives, and mastics. These additives provide outstanding efficiency for shear thinning, viscosity build, sag control, and pigment suspension. However, the high activation temperature is sometimes a deterrent for a broader use. In this paper, we present a new generation of highly efficient organic thixotrope based thickeners that can be activated at significantly lower temperatures. These new materials can be successfully incorporated in industrial coatings or sealant formulas for better viscosity build, sag resistance and higher extrusion rates. They display a wider process window and may require less energy in production.

Key Words: Next generation thickeners, rheology control, industrial coatings, construction, sealants, organic thixotropes.[/read]

14.5

12:00 - 12:30 pm

New Oxidative Drier Technology – Easy to incorporate universal primary & secondary driers

Morris Bingham
Allnex

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European regulations are driving cobalt and certain cobalt compounds to be reclassified, and some of these compounds will no longer be available for use in certain applications. Accordingly allnex has recently developed an “easy to incorporate” cobalt free drier system for solvent or water borne oxidative drying paints that fully complies with the new regulation, and are low VOC and free from hazardous labeling. These ‘next-generation’ Driers are highly efficient for set and through drying of alkyd paints used in segments such as decorative and industrial coatings. Thick coat skinning often seen with cobalt metal driers, is alleviated with this newly developed driers. The drier package of primary and secondary driers can be added individually or as a synergistic package tailored to the applications demand.

In conclusion, these innovative new co-free driers meet the latest European regulations of cobalt elimination while improving the performance over the previous generations of cobalt containing driers.[/read]

14.6

12:30 - 1:00 pm

Improving Adhesion: A Continuing Challenge with Modern, Compliant Coatings

Jim Reader
Evonik

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Adhesion is one of the most important properties of both decorative and protective coatings. Coatings have to provide excellent adhesion to many different or even mixed substrates and even overcome the hurdles created by poorly prepared or cleaned surfaces. The adhesion between different paint layers is also critical to the long-term performance of industrial coatings. As the demand for better adhesion increases, and regulations continue to limit formulation freedom, additives that can help to improve adhesion become more critical. This can be particularly challenging for water-based and high solids formulations.

There are many different approaches to improving the adhesion of paint, both chemical and mechanical. Polyester resins are a class of additives that can improve the adhesion of high solids and water-based coatings to different surfaces. These additives combine flexible polymer chain segments with different functional groups that can provide adhesion and interaction with different surfaces and binders to enhance adhesion and other physical properties of a coating formulation. Originally developed for solvent based coatings, newer generation polyester adhesion promoters have been developed for water-based and high solids applications.

This paper will highlight a new, select class of polyester adhesion promoters and outline their improvement to adhesion in mainstream formulations. It will also give guidelines on how these can be formulated to support existing formulations and avoid extensive and costly reformulating efforts to improve adhesion.[/read]

1:00 pm

End of Conference and Lunch on the Show Floor

Session 15:  Biobased Coatings

Chair: Dean Webster
North Dakota State University

15.1

9:30 - 10:00 am

Development of a Novel Bio-Based Hybrid Resin System for Hygienic Coating

Tirthankar Jana
Berger Paints India Limited

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Design and development of organic-inorganic hybrid materials has been the attention of paint researchers to balance aesthetics and performance requirement. In recent years, nano based coating systems is getting importance to develop hygienic coating.

In the present study, a special type of acrylic resin was synthesised via conventional solution polymerization technique. The resin was neutralized with a base to develop the resin in water based system for wider application and VOC control. This acrylic resin was further modified with nanostructured silica in presence of chitosan by a novel technique to form organic-inorganic hybrid polymer matrix. Chitosan based biopolymers are well known for several outstanding features like antimicrobial activity and deodorizing property. However, incorporation of chitosan into any polymer matrix is quite challenging due to its low reactivity. In the current work, chitosan was incorporated in the polymer matrix through the formation of an ion complex by suitable organic acid. The presence of chitosan in the polymer backbone was confirmed by spectroscopic analysis.

This hybrid polymer based coating exhibited hydrophobicity, water repellency, antimicrobial activity as well as formaldehyde adsorption ability. The degree of hydrophobicity and water repellency was controlled by the concentration of nanoparticles which was revealed through the surface morphology analysis of the film. The coating performance clearly showed significant influence of nano silica as well as chitosan in the hybrid polymer matrix.

Applications of such a facile and environmentally benign route would play a key role for the development of self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-microbial and fouling release water-borne coating to fulfil general hygiene, safety and sustainability requirements of coating.[/read]

15.2

10:00 - 10:30 am

Sustainable, Low Emissions, High-Performance Polyols for Wood Coatings

Gary Spilman
Resinate Materials Group

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

The development of sustainable, low emissions, high performance wood coating technologies continues to be of urgent interest to the coatings industry. Sustainable content in these coatings contributes to an improved environmental footprint, while low emitting technologies improve the indoor air quality and thereby, the health and well-being of building and home occupants desiring to re-occupy these structures as soon as possible after installation. Resinate Materials Group has developed biorenewable polyols that utilize low VOC (<150 g/liter) technology to yield 2K polyurethane wood coatings that have excellent stain and chemical resistance, excellent adhesion to both bare and prefinished wood, good abrasion resistance, low odor and excellent gloss. The new coating properties may be readily tailored to meet the individual needs of different wood coatings by simply adjusting the isocyanate index and/or isocyanate type. Progress on converting these new coating polyols into waterborne systems will also be reviewed.[/read]

15.3

10:30 - 11:00 am

Soy-Based Low-Temperature Powder Coatings

Jeff Cafmeyer
Battelle Memorial Institute

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Powder coating is an inherently green technology combining solvent-free and high transfer efficiency processes. Incorporating biobased resins such as those derived from soybean oil introduces another layer of green attributes by utilizing sustainable and renewable feedstocks. Battelle is developing novel soy-based resins with advantageous melt flow properties with the goal of creating a low-temperature cure thermoset resin system suitable for temperature sensitive substrates such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), plastics and composites. Thus far a high biobased content resin (84%) has been prepared, formulated with conventional curatives and cured coatings produced with acceptable properties with temperatures down to 125°C on steel panels. In this effort Battelle is working closely with formulators and evaluators during development to address industry needs and speed commercial introduction.[/read]

11:00 - 11:30 am

Networking: Coffee Break

15.4

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Novel CNSL-based Waterborne Zn-rich Primer systems for protective coatings

Hong Xu
Cardolite Corporation

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Low VOC waterborne (WB) Zn-rich primers and high performance WB epoxy primers have been developed based on novel Cashew NutShell Liquid (CNSL)- derived curing agents for industrial and protective coating applications. Those unique WB curing agents were synthesized from a natural, non-food chain and renewable biomaterial and could help to formulate WB primer systems that meet strict VOC regulations as well as high performance requirements.

This paper will present the latest performance studies of new CNSL-based WB Zn-rich primers and epoxy primers, and discuss some of the challenges faced in formulating such systems.

The new 2K WB Zn-rich primers were formulated with a water-free CNSL-based curing agent. Study results showed the WB Zn-rich primers had good compatibility with various commercial solid epoxy dispersions and delivered good cure and mechanical properties; importantly, those WB Zn-rich primers provided superb adhesion to both metal substrates and commercial polyurethane (PU) topcoats without the use of adhesion promoters. Excellent corrosion protection and good resistance to undercutting at the scribe were observed after 3000 hours Q-Fog exposure.

Additionally, newly developed WB high performance primers based on zero-VOC WB phenalkamines were evaluated either in combination with WB Zn-rich primers or by direct application to metal substrates. It has been found that those WB epoxy primers could enhance corrosion protection as mid-coats to WB Zn-rich primers; and when used as direct-to-metal coatings, WB epoxy primers also exhibited good mechanical and adhesion properties that benefited the overall anti-corrosion performances.[/read]

15.5

12:00 - 12:30 pm

Enzymatic Polymerization for Engineered Polysaccharides in Coatings

Christian Lenges
DuPont Industrial BioSciences

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Polysaccharides are important biopolymers with a wide range of industrial and consumer applications. Historically, structural polysaccharides such as cellulose have been the backbone of early material science for applications in fibers, coatings and early thermoplastics.

DuPont Industrial Biosciences has developed a family of engineered polysaccharides ranging in molecular weight, solubility, and polymer architecture. The enzymatic polymerization process offers the opportunity to allow for the rational design of polysaccharide polymer structure, architecture and material morphology. The presentation will discuss this new bioprocess and the use of the derived class of biomaterials as component in coating applications.[/read]

15.6

12:30 - 1:00 pm

Novel Sugar-Based Neutralizing Agent For Ecolabel Certified Paints

Tiffany Meyers
Clariant

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Over the course of a human lifespan, it is estimated that 90% of that time is spent indoors. As people desire to live in healthier indoor surroundings, they increasingly demand water-based paints that are free from air pollutants, hazardous substances and allergens. For consumers, it can be difficult to keep track of the different critical substances, therefore they rely on ecolabels in their buying decisions.

With currently available raw materials and additives, it is no easy task for a paint formulator to develop a high-quality paint that offers performance advantages, is easy-to-use and at the same time fulfills the stringent ecolabel criteria. Formulators select paint ingredients based not only on function but also its environmental profile. Additives should be multifunctional and universally applicable in order to reduce formulation complexity, raw material handling and logistic costs. In addition, they need to comply with regulatory requirements, safety and environmental-relevant aspects.

As key supplier to the paint industry, Clariant understands the formulators’ challenges and unmet needs. Clariant’s latest innovation for the paint industry is a renewable-based and VOC/SVOC-free specialty amine without any hazard labeling; thus the ideal ingredient for ecolabel certified paints. The additive is used as a neutralizing agent, compatibilizer and stabilizer for water-based systems and offers superior performance in comparison to standard neutralizing agents such as ammonia or multifunctional additives such as aminomethyl propanol.[/read]

1:00 pm

End of Conference and Lunch on the Show Floor

Session 16:  Bio-Fouling & Microbial Protection

Chair: Brian Corbin
The Dow Chemical Company

16.1

9:30 - 10:00 am

Novel Polymerizable Surfactants: N-Chloramine Reservoirs for Microbial Protection

Marcelo Dubiel
Exigence Technologies

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A novel strategy to combine polymerizable surfactant properties and N-halamine chlorine modulated antimicrobial performance in a single monomer is explored. Thanks to their amphiphilic structure and in a manner similar to the non-polymerizable analogues, polymerizable surfactants play a crucial role in providing colloidal stability when used in emulsion polymerization. In this report, a family of novel cationic polymerizable surfactants, with unique structural attributes will be presented. Once co-polymerized, these positively charged surfactants impart N-halamine functionality to the polymer backbone, which can subsequently provide antimicrobial properties to the binder after film formation, and upon treatment with a dilute bleach solution. The polymerizable surfactants are introduced into a typical Styrene-Acrylic formulation, and the prepared binder is characterized and compared against a control.[/read]

16.2

10:00 - 10:30 am

Evaluation of Waterbased Paint to Optimize Microbial Protection

Cecilia McGough
Lanxess

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Low or zero VOC products have an increasing market share in the paint industry. The demand for lower VOC products has forced paint manufacturers to increase the amount of water and water-based raw materials while decreasing VOC contenting solvent levels. This has a severe impact on microbial susceptibility of the end-products since it provides an optimal environment for microorganisms. The microbial growth leads to the degradation of the paint. Some typical characteristics of a spoiled paint are: loss of viscosity, discoloration, odor and change in physical properties. This shift to more water based formulations makes it critical to incorporate the appropriate biocide system into the formulation to control the microbial growth.

Historically, isothiazolines, bronopol, and formaldehyde releasers have been the biocides of choice for preventing microbial growth in the container. Besides these commonly used active ingredients, Dibromodicyanobutane (DBDCB) has been used successfully in detergents and adhesives, these excellent results could be easily transfered to emulsion systems like paints and coatings. This paper will address the challenges for formulators when selecting the correct biocide system in water based paint as well as the benefits of different types of biocides.[/read]

16.3

10:30 - 11:00 am

How to protect paint and coatings without use of traditional active release biocides

Wolfgang Geuking
Croda

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

The possibility that bacteria and or other micro-organisms such as fungi, moulds and algae accumulate on surfaces is a threat to the durability of materials as well as to human and animal health. This problem is evident on many materials and in many situations, such as medical devices, ship hulls and any moist environments in house- holds, e.g., showers, bathrooms, and kitchens. Over the years many ways of tackling this problem have been developed and have become well known in the art. Most available antimicrobial coatings are active by a slow release of toxic biocides like silver-ions to its environment. The slow release and accumulation of these biocides is of growing concern. The Regulation of Antimicrobials in paint and coatings are getting stricter and are driving the industry towards the development of more environmentally safe antimicrobials. The environmental impact of the leachable antimicrobials from façade coatings is one of the examples which have attracted increased attention in recent years, while the microbial resistance to these antimicrobials is another major challenge.

In order to achieve long-active antimicrobial solutions Croda develops non-toxic, surface- active antimicrobial resins for paint applications. By using a special polymerization process, an antimicrobial resin is fabricated. This resin develops a cationic/ hydrophobic surface during the curing (hardening) process. A polymer with different charges and polarity ranges on its surface can induce electrostatic attraction to the different parts of bacterial cell mem- branes, making it a hostile environment and thus reducing their proliferation. Like using a mouse trap instead of a poison, the novel technology works like a kind of microbe trap on a nano scale. Apart from being completely safe for man and environment, this physical action has another big advantage: microbes will not become resistant to this kind of control. The antimicrobial technology, its working mechanism and test results will be discussed.[/read]

11:00 - 11:30 am

Networking: Coffee Break

16.4

11:30 am - 12:00 pm

Improved Anti-Fouling Performance and Coatings Durability in Marine Coating

Maria Nargiello
Evonik

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Copper oxide based anti-fouling coatings are increasingly under regulatory scrutiny. Typically, very high loadings of copper oxide biocide are needed to achieve required high performance, sometimes higher than 50 weight-%. The amount of copper oxide can be reduced dramatically by incorporating a novel structure modified, nanostructured synthetic silica, while the coating still offers full anti-fouling performance.

Formulating with structure-modified silica in marine coatings improves the stability of the surface. Thus, the coating is more durable and robust against abrasion that may occur for example during underwater cleaning.

This paper addresses the effect of structure-modified, nanostructured silica in marine anti-fouling coatings. It will elaborate on the synergistic effect between silica and cuprous oxide and give results on the anti-fouling performance from field tests. Special focus will highlight the improved abrasion resistance and mechanical stability of marine coatings supported by applications data.[/read]

16.5

12:00 - 12:30 pm

A New Biological Antifoulant for Marine Paints

Gonçalo Costa
Biomimetx

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

Antifouling coatings prevent the attachment and growth of marine organisms on surfaces in seawater. Fouling increases surface resistance movement, thereby increasing fuel consumption of the vessels to maintain speed.

After the ban on tin-based antifouling (more than two decades ago), most suppliers start to use copper-based coatings. However, dissolved copper from these coatings systems has increased in certain poorly flushed basins and in crowded marinas exceeding the Clean Water Act standard for copper. Scientific studies have shown high concentrations of dissolved copper in ocean water can affect the growth, development, and reproduction of mussels, oysters, scallops, sea urchins, and crustaceans.

Since 2012, significant R&D resources have been allocated for the development of copper-free antifouling coatings in anticipation of increasing restrictions.

Biomimetx SA a Portuguese biotechnology company developed a mixture of compounds – BMX-11 - produced by a proprietary bacterium, that are biodegradable, cost effective and broad spectrum. We are presenting for the first time this biological biocide, capable of being incorporated in marine paints to replace current toxic biocides, namely copper and that is enviromently friendly.

BMX-11 proved in the laboratory to be active against a wide range of organisms and in raft tests after incorporated in paint showed that is still active against soft and hard fouling (namely algae and tube worms). Raft test took place in several locations, in the presence of different fouling organisms and water temperature.

BMX-11 production is done by bacterial fermentation with very simple downstream processing and it reached industrial scale, showing that can be deliver to industrial customers cost effectively. Toxicological studies showed that BMX-11 is not harmful to mammals. These data allowed BMX-11 to be considered a Biochemical pesticide by US EPA, shortening the registration process that is underway and should be concluded next year.[/read]

16.6

12:30 - 1:00 pm

A New Approach for Preservation of Coatings Formulations

Scott Brown
Lonza

[read more="View Abstract" less="Close Abstract"]

In today’s globalized architectural coatings market there is free movement of raw materials and technology across international borders. This globalization has provided benefits, however as global supply chains become interconnected and interdependent there is greater potential for disruption from regional regulatory changes. While any raw material can potentially be impacted, the antimicrobials (biocides) used in coatings pose a unique challenge to formulators, as they are often subject to obscure regulatory provisions.

Regulatory trends for preservatives have severely limited the options for in-can protection of paints and coatings. More recently there have been proposed changes in the hazard communication requirements for a commonly used preservative active agent. These changes will cause the presence of many commonly used preservative systems to trigger consumer unfriendly hazard labeling on the associated paint containers. These hazard phrases can alarm consumers, and alter their buying behaviors.

Past approaches to developing preservative blends which avoid triggering hazard phrases have focused on using a combination of active agents selected such that each active is present below its trigger concentration. This approach assumes a future regulatory environment where the active agents will always be considered independently, and the individual preservative concentrations will never be summed together and considered as an aggregate total preservative load. Under this label driven approach, switching preservative systems to avoid hazard phrases can have the odd result that the total amount of preservative active agent present in the coating formulation actually increases. Therefore any subsequent regulatory change in the trigger concentration of any of the actives in the blend, or any movement towards consideration of preservative loading as an aggregate, requires a time consuming re-qualification of a readjusted preservative system.

This paper describes how a novel formulation approach was used to create a more efficient preservative system. This innovative approach makes it possible to lower the total amount of preservative active agent present in the preserved coating formulation, and therefore it provides a protection system that is more robust against future regulatory changes. Supporting data and examples are provided from regions where this new technology has already been commercialized.[/read]

1:00 pm

End of Conference and Lunch on the Show Floor

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INDIANA CONVENTION CENTER
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 American Coatings SHOW  2020